"Wild" medicine. How primitive people were treated in the Stone Age
Person- a very selfish and selfish creature. Imagine that someone, even a long time ago, was smarter and more clever - that the knife is sharp. Perhaps it is for this reason that respected medical dictionaries and encyclopedias still broadcast muffled spells like: “Primitive people paid little attention to their hygiene — cleanliness of their bodies and homes. Clothes changed only once in a lifetime, and therefore the skin was dirty. In the caves, the dirt accumulated in front of the doors and made up whole mountains, which in the warm season emitted a strong stench. ”
In other words, horror and nightmare. The most interesting - the legitimate question “But how has humanity survived under these conditions?” - remains unanswered.
Not a man - flint!
Meanwhile, humanity is not just survived. Even in the Stone Age, which, by the way, is 8/9 of our entire history, man inhabited all the continents except Antarctica, and became a kind of "absolute predator."And it was not suffering from ulcers, caries, syphilis and muscle atrophy lousy undersized moron, wrapped in smelly skins, as stated by the quoted quote.
Archeology data shows us very different ancestors. The average height of men is about 180 cm. Women is 165–170 cm. Virtually no caries is a real scourge of our days.
The caves are not all that simple either. They are dark, damp and cold - the temperature is that in winter, which in summer is no higher than six. Only grottoes were suitable for life. In our area, on the Central Russian Plain, they preferred to build large, high-quality semi-dwelling houses. The foundation is from the skulls and jaws of the mammoth, the overlap is from its own tusks. Evidence of this is several such houses found near the settlement of Mezhirichi. Badly dressed smelly skins are also harmful fiction. In the parking lot of Sungir, in the Vladimir region, burials over 27 thousand years old were found. The dead - an old man and two teenagers - were dressed in perfectly tailored fur hooded overalls, decorated with belts with bone overlays and embroidered with horn beads.
At the same time, to declare that the primitive man was dirty, stupid and did not understand medicine is at least ridiculous.Moreover, throughout Eurasia, every year there is evidence that at least surgery was at its height.
Hole in the head
In the middle of the 20th century, when man already possessed the energy of the atom and threatened space, doctors sadly stated: “Sometimes craniotomy is necessary. But in most cases it is a reliable way to send a patient to the next world. ” 25 years later, in the valley of the Lozère River, in France, the skulls of people of the Stone Age were found with traces of trepanation. No one could believe it. They said that the ritual holes that are made posthumously. But the facts directly showed that the holes made in the skull by a flintlock 30 thousand years ago were overgrown. That is, the patient lived after the surgery, and for quite a long time. And, presumably, he was active - others in those hard times did not linger on earth.
The account of such skulls is already hundreds. Statistics show that 9 out of 10 trepanations were successful in the Stone Age. Moreover, a skull with seven (!) Healed holes was found.
Archaeologists have been able to restore the technology of the Stone Age. Trepanation was performed in a rather brutal way - not punching the bone, but slowly scraping its layers. There was a plus in this: with this technique, the brain membrane was not damaged.But there was also a minus: the operation on an adult person could last up to an hour and a half. How could the people of the Stone Age endure such a thing?
In the USSR, where money was not thrown into the wind, they seriously studied the phenomenon of shamanism. The blessing here and there in Siberia is still practiced by shamans. Curious things turned out. In the process of kamlaniya, the shaman can really not only enter the trance himself, but also introduce up to several people to it at a time. This trance is deep and can last up to several days. Being in such a state, a person does not feel pain. However, this method of anesthesia is suitable only in cases when craniocerebral injuries were treated with trepanation, the effects of hemorrhages in the brain or a tumor were removed. For the mentally ill trance was dangerous. But the shamans found a way out here. Several stone age burials contain a fair amount of hemp pollen, remains of poppy heads and spores of hallucinogenic mushrooms. So the shaman, who had drunk his poppy broth 30 thousand years ago before the operation of his patient, was not much different from the doctor of the 20th century, who introduced morphine to the patient.
We must assume that, with the same anesthesia, the teeth were turned by flint drills.The remains of people who lived at the same time with our mammoth hunters were found in Front Asia and the Iranian Highlands. The percentage of trepanning among them is less, but for some reason, the number of teeth that have been knocked out is greater. Accordingly, the specialization of local healers and shamans was somewhat different from European. But in their field, they have reached impressive heights. Bridges for three, four and even five teeth, made of ivory or natural asphalt, fit amazingly accurately. And all this is done with the help of "despicable" stone tools.
The people of the Stone Age were sick less often than we, but injuries went off scale. Not uncommon were people who survived the amputation of the arm and even the legs. It is believed that such cripples were driven out of the camp to starvation. In fact, they lived, if not happily, then at least for a long time: they were up to 60 or even 70 years old.
If it seems to someone that the average age of people of the Stone Age is too small, do not blame medicine for this. In the end, even the XIX century, the “age of steam and electricity,” can hardly compete with the world of “savages.”
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