What is antibiotic resistance?

Resistance to antibiotics in children develops as a result of changes in bacteria that become resistant to the antibiotics used to treat the infections they cause. After reading this article, you will learn what antibiotic, resistance to cantibiotics and what means of combating bacteria and viruses.

It is important for everyone to know how to protect themselves and their children from bacteria and viruses. There are different ways for this, right up to medical intervention. Raising in itself resistance to antibiotics and fighting with pathogenic bacteria, health will be strong.

All of us from time to time come across a problem of the common cold. Do I need to put up and lie in bed for a week, like a shrimp, while the body fights infection? Or is it worth taking and strangle the germ back in the budsomehowmeans? Antibiotics may seem like a simple solution. The problem is that only one tablet can have a negative impact on the body's ability to fight disease the next time.

 

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It can also lead to antibiotic resistance in the body, leading to the formation of new, antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. But such a problem is very difficult, or rather, it is hardly possible to cure.

How does antibiotic resistance occur? What is an antibiotic?

  • Antibiotic is a broad-spectrum drug that inhibits the growth and development of bacterial cells. The impact is to destroy or prevent the proliferation of cells, but does not apply to viruses.

  • They are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, or skin infections.

Alain Cheng,infectious disease physicianand a professor of epidemiology, explains that when a person starts taking antibiotics to treat a particular disease, the goal is, first of all, to eliminate the bacteria that cause the disease.

But antibiotics do not always kill all the bacteria that provoked the disease. Most bacteria have a short cycle of existence, so the possibility for genetic transformations and mutations is very large.

 

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There is a chance that 1, 10 or 50 bacteria are mutated and become resistant to the action of the antibiotic.Cells grow, and among them is what is called "natural selection." Among the liquidated majority, a small part remains, but twice as strong as before. This is how antibiotic resistance begins.

 

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Can antibiotic packaging affect the body?

In short - yes! The packaging of antibiotics can change the number of microorganisms that are resistant to the action of the antibiotic, and can also affect the development of such phenomena in the closest environment to you.

At the level of the individual, not only the bacteria that cause the disease are affected by taking antibiotics. If a person takes antibiotics, for example, to treat a urinary infection. The action of the antibiotic extends not only to the urine, but also to other systems and organs, affecting all the bacteria in the body, the intestines, the noseetc.

Virus or bacteria?

So you create a series of antibiotic-resistant organisms. According to the professor, just one course of antibiotics increases the risk of immunity to them by 50%.

In one study, patients measured the level of antibiotic-resistant cells before and after medication.And the period from 6 to 12 months, this number has increased by almost half.

Each new antibiotic intake increases the number of resistant organisms.Professor of MicrobiologyLin Gilbert explains that antibiotic-resistant organisms accumulate over time.

"We are talking primarily about the quantitative aspect. The more antibiotics you take, the more chances for mutations or the formation and spread of a resistant gene from one microorganism to another - a slow and constant increase, of a kind."
Antibiotics also act on "good" bacteria in the body. Since antibiotics have a wide spectrum of action, they can impair the body’s natural defenses against bacterial infections — for example, good bacteria in the intestines.

 

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It makes you more susceptible to bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics distributed by other people.

People who accumulate such microorganisms. They can spread them to others, which is especially common in hospitals, where antibiotics are especially frequent and applicable.

If you are taking antibiotics, the normal intestinal flora is under pressure, that is,those microorganisms that are resistant to drugs have the ability to “seize” the intestine before the flora recovers. But sometimes even the intestinal flora itself can change and become resistant.

Can timely discontinuation of antibiotics make a difference?

A common and erroneous opinion is that the resistance develops against the backdrop of an incomplete or unfinished course of taking medications - that is, some of the bacteria are killed, but microorganisms with less sensitivity to medicines remain.
But professors argue that this is not entirely true.

 

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It is more and more like a myth. In fact, a short course means only that you are less prone to developing resistance to medication, because the longer you take an antibiotic, the faster the development of resistant microorganisms. The question is if the infection can cause death, then the risk of using antibiotics is in any case less than the risk of dying from infection.

 

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The main problem is the abuse of antibiotics.

According to doctors, the main causes of the problem are the abuse and misuse of antibiotics.

This also applies to those who have been prescribed an antibiotic to treat a mild infection that the body could fight on its own, as well as for viruses (influenza) that are not treated with an antibiotic.

In Australia, the level of medical prescriptions, including antibiotics, is one of the highest in the world - more than 29 million prescriptions per year.
According to sullen statistics, every fifth person takes an antibiotic from viral diseases, such as flu or colds, and 57% of doctors prescribe an antibiotic to treat upper respiratory tract infections, which the patient expects.

 

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30% of the 50% of prescribed antibiotics are either unreasonable or unnecessary, or are not appropriate for the treatment of a particular disease. Therefore, the conclusion suggests itself - the misuse of antibiotics occurs very often.
Again, as soon as a person develops many microorganisms that are resistant to the antibiotic, he becomes a carrier of such microbes, which only aggravates the common problem.

The dilemma of the fight against viruses and bacteria

In 2014, various studies were conducted and it was revealed that antibiotic resistance could lead to 10 million deaths worldwide by 2050, totaling procurement reaching about 1.3 billion dollars.

In Australia, there have already been some positive changes in this direction, since one of the super-developed microorganisms was able to expose control - tuberculosis.
In the underdeveloped countries, by contrast, the problem of diseases thatsometimeit was possible to restrain an antibiotic, but now it is impossible, increased. But even in highly developed countries like the United States, there are certain difficulties.due toexisting several subtypes resistant to a variety of drugs of bacteria.

Read also:Liquid or dry probiotics?


“As there was a more liberal attitude to the use of antibiotics for the treatment of animals in the US than in Australia, where it was banned 20-30 years ago, the problem remained and intensified.”

In the underdeveloped countries, lack of antibiotic control and lack of sanitation contribute to the spread ofsuper resistantorganisms.

"In India and in many countriesSoutheastAsia presents a huge range of antibiotics in the usual pharmacy access, which are also often of poor quality. But unsanitary conditions means that water is primarily contaminated, andmulti-resistantorganisms pass from one person to another. "

Doctors recommend antibiotics in serious cases.

Professor Cheng agrees that, compared to other countries, Australia is not the worst position, but this does not mean that one should not strive to prevent the situation from worsening in the future and let everything take its course.

In hospitals, doctors have a number of reasons to use antibiotics - not only for treating infections.

 

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We rely on antibiotics in many ways ... For example, at the time of surgery to replace a hip or knee joint. Without antibiotics, this would be impossible, because we need to prevent or kill the infection that may occur during surgery. The same thing happens with transplantation and chemotherapy.

 

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What is of the greatest concern to the professor is, first of all, the situation in which, in the absence of an antibiotic in the croaks, organ transplants or joint replacement will be too dangerous. Therefore, the reception of antibiotics should occur reasonably, and in the presence of the powerful reasons specified by competent experts.

We hope the article was useful to you and now you know what antibiotic resistance is and what methods you need to use to fight bacteria and viruses.You will save your health and child.


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