What are recreational areas? Tourist and recreational special economic zones of the Russian Federation
Recreational areas are primarily intended for recreation. These are the corners of nature in the city, both natural and artificially created.
Why do we need recreation areas?
Recreational areas of natural origin - lakes, forest areas, river banks. This is what is left of the wild nature, its last islets in the stones of the city. Artificially created recreational areas are all familiar parks and landings, ponds, gardens and reservoirs. This is nature, created by human hands. Places where you can relax, listen to the rustling of the foliage and lapping of the waves, admire the birds, breathe the fresh air. In short, to touch the wildlife, which is so small in the modern city.
Often these areas are used for sports, usually there are playgrounds specifically designed for outdoor activities. This is especially true of reservoirs. Equipped beaches - the basis of safe water recreation.
But the recreational zone does not exist only for people to have a place to rest. It is this that specialized recreation areas differ from natural ones.
Toilets, first aid stations, local police stations can be located in such territories. Often there are kiosks, rental centers for various sports equipment, sports equipment and equipped playgrounds for children. In short, these places look like corners of the wild nature, equipped with all the possible benefits of civilization.
Environmental functions of recreational areas
However, these are not the only arguments in favor of creating such territories. The construction of a recreational zone is necessary not only because people need a comfortable and safe resting place. Nature also needs a break from people. The fact is that the townspeople will somehow find a place to rest, they will go to the forest or to the undeveloped bank of the river.And the trouble is not that it can be dangerous. Adults are themselves able to determine an acceptable degree of risk. But almost always after such holidaymakers there are piles of garbage and bottles left on the grass that cannot be cleaned in the forest, because there are no janitors there. And in the worst case, it will all end in a fire that has broken out from an open fire or a cigarette thrown into the dry grass.
It can be said that the recreational areas of the city protect wildlife from coarse human intervention. Those who want to sit on the grass and fry kebabs just go to the park. Yes, they trash there and may not keep up with the fire. But the recreational areas are equipped with safety equipment, and firefighters are nearby, they will arrive at the first bell. And abandoned bottles and plastic food boxes will be removed by workers at the beach or the park.
Often, the creation of a recreational zone at the site of a forest or reservoir absorbed by a city is the only way to save it from destruction. Otherwise, the lake will be drained and buried, and the forest will be cut down to make room for building. The preservation of areas of wildlife in the city is an extremely important task. High real estate prices cause exceptional labor enthusiasm among developers.
Recreation and tourism areas - what is it?
Those who do not cause interest parks and alleys, can go to the tourist and recreational economic zones. These are legally designated zones intended for tourism and only for it.
Relevant legislation was passed in 2006. The purpose of creating such natural zones was to increase the competitiveness of the tourism business. It is assumed that the special economic and legislative conditions will stimulate the development of tourism business, the creation of new and reconstruction of old medical and health resorts.
Similar zones can be created in separate areas of municipalities. Private houses and various objects of infrastructure of any form of ownership can be located there. Sites allocated for this type of zone may be part of specially protected areas. This is exactly where the tourist and recreational zone differs from the usual economic zone.
The state offers companies intending to engage in the tourism business, to obtain the status of a resident of the tourist and recreation zone and take advantage of the associated benefits.Residents can be used when calculating depreciation on their own fixed assets with a special coefficient. Restrictions on the transfer of losses for subsequent tax periods, constituting 30% for other business entities, have been removed for residents. In addition, a sparing income tax rate can be set for them for a certain period.
The problem of protecting wildlife during the creation of tourist and recreational areas
Metallurgical production, development and mining of any minerals are strictly prohibited on the territory of such tourist and recreational zones. The exceptions are mineral waters, curative mud and other objects of balneological tourism. It is also impossible to deal with the processing of ferrous, non-ferrous metals, and minerals, except, again, for spilling mineral water or other utilization of the balneological resources of the territory. It is prohibited to manufacture and process any excisable goods other than motorcycles and cars.
One of the reasons why environmentalists are doubtful about the project is that entrepreneurs get the right to build tourist facilities in nature conservation areas.It is very likely, environmentalists believe that these works will be conducted in violation of existing rules and regulations.
Similar experiments took place in the Crimea and ended sadly. The construction of facilities planned as environmentally friendly has led to the cutting down of unique relict forests and the destruction of natural coastal formations. With such a development of events, it will no longer matter whether the tourist complex will continue to function or not, whether the developer will be punished. After all, the damage will already be done, the reception is irreparable. Such risks should also be considered.
That is why environmental organizations demand to ban the construction of tourist complexes in unique protected areas. It is easier to prevent such misfortunes than to look for ways to eliminate the consequences. Especially since they do not exist.
Estimated economic benefits of the project
The creators of this law believe that the development of tourism in Russia is impossible without the economic support of entrepreneurs working in this area. According to preliminary calculations, until 2026, 44.5 billion rubles will be spent on financing such zones.According to forecasts, representatives of the tourism business will invest more than 270 billion rubles in the creation and development of tourist and recreational areas. Tax revenues from the project should amount to 260 billion rubles. The flow of tourists will increase by more than three times, and the contribution of tourism to the formation of the country's GDP will reach 2%. This is not so little as it seems - after all, now the state’s revenues from this field of activity tend to zero. This is what makes the development of tourism in Russia one of the priority areas of business that require government support.
The creation of such zones has not only economic goals. The result of such a program should be to improve the quality of service in the resorts of Russia, their improvement. Now, many say that it is more pleasant and profitable to rest on the shores of Turkey and Egypt than at home. Since the tourism business brings countries with attractive territories in this regard, a considerable income, it is obvious that the situation needs to be changed. It is necessary to apply all the conditions so that vacationers want to spend their money on the territory of Russia, and not abroad.
What areas for recreation and tourism are now being created?
Currently, the recreational zones of Russia are represented by the following list:
- recreational area in the Stavropol region;
- in the Irkutsk region - "Gate of Baikal";
- in the Altai - “Altai Valley” and “Turquoise Katun”;
- zone in Itum-Kaly district of the Chechen Republic.
Previously, this list was two points longer, but recreational zones in the Krasnodar Territory and the Kaliningrad Region were eliminated by a government decision. The zone on the Curonian Spit in the Kaliningrad region ceased to exist, since not a single agreement was concluded with the residents, and businessmen who wanted to invest in the development of tourism infrastructure were not found.
The tourist and recreation zone in the Krasnodar Territory ceased to exist for the same reason. But it should have been located on the territory of well-known and favorite resorts: Sochi, Gelendzhik, Anapa, Tuapse. Cities that have always been exclusively tourist.
How could it happen that in the territories traditionally living at the expense of tourism there were no businessmen willing to create tourism facilities on a preferential basis and under the auspices of the state? From the entire list of recreational areas, this item seemed the most promising.
Obviously, the practical implementation of the project to create tourist and recreational areas will be much more problematic than it seemed at first. And the above calculations are most likely overly optimistic. Since in Sochi and Tuapse there were no people willing to engage in the tourism business, it means that the projected revenues from the project need to be seriously adjusted. And eliminate the factors leading to this situation.
Time will show how economically well-off other objects will be.
Tourist complex in the Stavropol region
The natural recreation zone located in the Stavropol Territory is called “Caucasian Mineral Waters”. It is located on the territory of Kislovodsk, Zheleznovodsk, Yessentuki, Pyatigorsk, the cities of Mineralnye Vody and Lermontov, Predgorny and Mineralovodsky District. The potential of the zone is extensive. Beautiful landscapes, mountain air, the unique flavor of the Caucasus. The unique health resorts of the Stavropol Territory were famous during the times of Tsarist Russia, and the mineral water Yessentuki is one of the best mineral waters in the world.
Near the recreational zone are located the basic elements of infrastructure, access to them is not difficult.In this, it is supposed to develop, first of all, health and balneological tourism, which seem promising to be sports, educational and ecological.
Tourist complexes "Turquoise Katun" and "Altai Valley"
Tourist and recreation zone "Turquoise Katun" is located on the banks of the river Katun. This area resembles the classic landscapes of northern Europe: mountains, alpine meadows and mixed forests. Here it is sunny and relatively warm, the average annual temperature is +5.about. In these places a lot of snow falls, the height of the cover reaches 600 mm. It is supposed to create routes for hiking, water, skiing, equestrian tourism. Here it will be interesting to fishermen and mushroom pickers, climbers and fans of caving, hunters and lovers of rafting on mountain rivers.
Traditional crafts and crafts of the inhabitants of Altai, a large number of monuments of archeology and culture, museums of the Altai Territory can also attract tourists to the area.
The project of the recreation zone “Altai Valley” should cover the territories of two state reserves and four reserves, 5 objects from the UNESCO World Heritage List will be included here.
The most attractive for tourism are the Lower Uimon, Nizhnekatunsky, Ursulsky, Biya-Telitsky districts. On the territory of the tourist zone there is such a unique natural object, like the Manzherok Lake. Nearby is the mountain Sinyuha. This is the perfect place to create a mountain resort that meets international standards. At the moment in the country there are none. The Government of the Republic of Altai has repeatedly tried to start building a tourist complex, but there was always not enough money for this. Perhaps in the framework of this project there will be funds.
One of the major drawbacks of this territory is the absence of the airport. Getting to the recreation area is very uncomfortable. The “airport construction” point is included in the project, but it is unlikely to be funded, at least until the benefit of this becomes obvious. So far, the positive balance of the project is questionable.
Tourist complex "Gate of Baikal"
The recreation zone “Gate of Baikal” in Buryatia is supposed to be created next to the lake itself, because it is the goal of tourists visiting the region. In this area there is everything to create a mountain sports and health resort of the balneological area: mountains, mountain rivers, a warm lake, mineral springs and curative mud.
The composition of a large resort facility should include ski resorts, water and mud hospitals, trails for ecological and sports tourism. It is supposed to create a center of water tourism on the shores of Lake Kotokelskoe with a yacht club and a covered water park.
Ski resort in the Chechen Republic
The recreational zone in the Chechen Republic will be located in the mountains, not far from the city of Grozny. It will be organized as a high-class ski resort. It is planned to build a huge tourist complex.