What are dust collectors? Battery cyclones: operating principle and features
Such devices as dust collectors (cyclones),are used in water heating solid fuel boilers, vacuum cleaners, cars, etc. They are designed to clean air from particles of solid non-sticking ash or dust with a diameter of more than five microns, as well as dusty gases. The modern cyclone can have different capacities, which vary from 6,500 to 43,000 cubic meters of air per hour, while the cleaning factor reaches 80%. These indicators indicate the quality of the operation of such a facility.
Gravity Dust Collectors
Cyclones of this type are the simplestdevices. The principle of operation is as follows: polluted air enters the chamber, there it expands, its speed decreases. This leads to the fact that the solid particles settle under the influence of their own weight.
Inertial Dust Collectors
Devices of this type are divided into wetand dry. They differ in the principle of work. For example, consider dry dust collectors. Cyclones rotational in appearance look like a fan. However, there is a difference between the two instruments: the dust collector not only moves the air, but also cleans it of dust. This process occurs under the influence of centrifugal force on the impeller.
Wet dust collectors, for example,cyclone-washers, work on a different principle, in comparison with devices of dry type. First of all, they are equipped with a special water tank, which provides a constant pressure of water, so that it passes into the inlet pipe and gets to the bottom of the distributor. Contaminated air, entering the cyclone, begins to interact with water. As a result, due to inertial forces, dust settles on the surface of the walls.
Battery cyclones: structural features
This type of device has a certainThe design, which includes from 16 to 56 cyclone elements with a diameter of 245 mm. They, in turn, consist of hollow bodies of cylindrical shape, the lower part of which is made in the form of a cone with inlet nozzles placed on it, equipped with so-called half-waxes. These elements also contain within themselves vertically arranged exhaust pipes.
Each battery cyclone consists of three chambers:
- Vertical - for purified gases.
- Medium - for dusty gases.
- Lower - made in the form of a bunker to collect dust.
Main features of battery cyclones
One of the most important features of batterycyclones is the complete absence of disconnected sections, which ensures the inseparable flow of the flow. Due to this, these dust collectors can work in full. Cyclones of this type do not need to be adjusted for performance. Their effectiveness can be significantly reduced only if used for a group of boilers. Therefore, it is recommended to install such a device only on one boiler room. Typically, the cyclones are mounted next to the rear of the unit in front of the exhaust fan.
Principle of operation: brief description
In order to manufacture a cyclone-dust collector by one's own hands, it is necessary to know the principle of its operation well. It is this knowledge that will help to effectively use this device in various industries.
So, let's consider what the principle iswork of the dust collector. The contaminated atmosphere at a speed of approximately 20-25 meters per second is first fed into the middle chamber. There it is divided into equal streams and is directed to cyclone elements. After this, a rapid spiral-rotational motion begins. Due to the forces of inertia, dust and ash particles gradually settle on the walls of the purification plant and are picked up by another airflow, eventually falling into the lower chamber. The cleaned gas medium is directed upward through the cyclone inner tube and discharged into the surrounding atmosphere.
Dust collectors (battery cyclones) are commonly used in:
- industrial ventilation systems;
- heating and industrial boiler houses;
- drying aggregates of briquette and concentrating factories, etc.