Warsaw Pact Organization (ATS). Warsaw Pact countries
After World War II, the Warsaw Pact Organization began its existence. The year of its formation - 1955th. It existed until 1991. On May 14, 1955, the Military Countries participating in this event were signed, thus responding to the accession of Germany to NATO. This document was signed by socialist European states. The leading role among them belonged then to the Soviet Union. Let us further consider what the Organization of the Warsaw Pact countries represented.
The Warsaw Treaty Organization (Warsaw Pact Organization) was formed by Czechoslovakia, the USSR, Romania, Poland, the GDR, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Albania. The document, signed by these states in order to ensure security and peace in Europe, entered into force on June 5, 1955. On April 26, 1985, due to its expiration, it was extended for another 20 years.However, after 5 years, transformations began in a number of states of Eastern and Central Europe, and then in the USSR. The dissolution of the Warsaw Pact Organization took place on July 1, 1991. On this day, the Protocol on the complete termination of its action was signed. The formation of the Warsaw Pact Organization was of particular strategic importance. It was an association consisting of sufficiently strong countries seeking unity and security in the world.
The agreement included a preamble and eleven articles. Under the terms of the document, as well as the UN Charter, the Warsaw Pact countries have undertaken to refrain from the use of force or the threat of its use in international relations with other states. If any of the parties to the Agreement will be attacked, the rest should immediately assist her with all the means at their disposal, including the army.
The Warsaw Pact Organization has formed a consultative political committee. His task was to consider all issues related to the implementation of the signed Agreement.The troops of the Warsaw Pact countries were in general subordination of the OKVS (Joint Command). This body was supposed to ensure the interaction of the Armed Forces and the strengthening of the defense capabilities of the participating States.
The first of them was adopted in Moscow at the meeting of the PAC in 1958. In this Declaration, the Warsaw Pact Organization invited NATO members to conclude a non-aggression pact. The following document was adopted in 1960, also in Moscow. The declaration adopted at this meeting approved the decision of the USSR to unilaterally abandon nuclear tests, if the rest of the Western states also did not resume the explosions. The Allied Powers also called for the creation of favorable conditions for ending the implementation of the agreement on the cessation of the experimental use of weapons. In 1965, the Warsaw meeting was held. It discussed the situation that has developed as a result of plans to form a NATO nuclear multilateral forces. The meeting also considered measures of protection in case of implementation of these programs. At the Budapest meeting in 1966, the Declaration on Strengthening Security and Peace in Europe was adopted.
Maneuvers and exercises
The Warsaw Pact organization held joint events with the participation of the armies. Maneuvers and command and staff exercises were conducted in the territories of all the allied states. The largest events were called:
- The Quartet (in 1963).
- The October Storm (in 1965).
- The Rhodopes (in 1967).
- The North (in 1968).
- Brotherhood in Arms (1970).
- West 81 (in 1981).
- "Shield-82" (in 1982).
The Warsaw Pact organization maintained constant coordination between the intelligence agencies of the allied states. In 1979, the global electronic communications system (SOUD) began to function. It included space reconnaissance assets of the GDR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, the USSR, as well as Cuba, Mongolia and Vietnam, which were not part of the Agreement.
Warsaw Pact countries adhered to a defensive position. In 1955-65 the doctrine was reduced to the Soviet strategy of fighting with the use of a massive nuclear missile strike with simultaneous lightning attack to capture the enemy’s territory, depriving him of the opportunity to continue the fight. The formation of the Warsaw Pact, in its essence, was a counterweight to NATO, and in particular, the United States.In accordance with the doctrine of this decade, the probability of launching a preemptive nuclear strike was allowed when a threat of a surprise attack was detected by analogy with the American strategy of "massive retaliation". The corresponding tasks were distributed among the Allied states. Thus, the Soviet Army was entrusted with the execution of strategic strikes using nuclear weapons. Combat in the oceans were to lead the combined fleets, and on the European continent - aviation and ground forces. At the same time, on the main directions, participation of associations from the USSR Army was envisaged.
During this period, the military ATS doctrine provided for the gradual development of actions. It was supposed to begin with the use of only conventional weapons, limited use of nuclear weapons, gradually moving, if necessary, to their massive introduction. NW could be involved only if it is applied by NATO. As before, special attention was paid to carrying out a strategic offensive on the enemy’s territory in order to soon defeat its main forces and capture the most important economic regions.This doctrine was similar to the US "flexible response" program.
Strategy of the early 80's
It is based on the principle of readiness to wage battles of any kind. In accordance with this doctrine, military actions were assumed both without nuclear weapons and with it. At the same time, a number of local fights with the use of conventional weapons were envisaged. Pre-emptive strikes of nuclear weapons were not expected. In this case, nuclear weapons were allowed to use only if it will be used by the enemy. Together with the conduct of strategic attacks on enemy territories, large-scale defensive operations were also planned.
Value of Poland
In mid-October 1955, the Protocol of the agreements between the Soviet and Polish governments was signed in Moscow. In accordance with it, the Polish Armed Forces, in addition to the air defense forces, were to send part of their operational forces, consolidated from the air and three combined-arms armies into the Primorsky Front. These forces were to operate in the United States Allied forces in the second strategic echelon in the auxiliary direction. Their task was to cover the right flank of the main shock group of the USSR, as well as the sea coast from the likely landings of NATO troops.
A committee of allied defense ministers developed plans for joint command and staff activities. These included, in particular, programs for general exercises and maneuvers, cooperation in the training of soldiers and staffs, the unification of charters, instructions, manuals, rules and other documents, as well as the introduction of new weapons and equipment, logistics, and so on.
This body was in charge of the modernization of the equipment of the combined forces. The committee developed programs for their unification, which would facilitate interaction during battles. In addition, he established a specialization in the production of military equipment by certain States Parties.
Armed Forces ATS included funds from the Armed Forces of the allied states. The number of armies was coordinated by bilateral agreements of the Soviet government and the leadership of other countries. Documents updated every 5 years. This was due to the development of the development programs of the armed forces of individual states in the next five-year periods. In the peace period, only the most trained forces were present in the United troops.In the event of war, they were joined by operational units that were trained to conduct battles on external fronts.
Operational tactical maneuvers under this code name took place from May 12th to 19th, 1979. The troops and headquarters of the Hungarian, Bulgarian, Czechoslovak, Soviet armies and the armed forces of Romania participated in the exercises. The head of operations was the Hungarian General Zinege. At the exercises, questions were developed on the conduct of hostilities by the combined efforts of the allied armies. The events showed an increased level of operational and tactical training for officers, generals and staffs. The exercises contributed to the subsequent interaction of the armed forces of the allied states, as well as to the strengthening of combat cooperation between them. The ground forces were mainly involved in the activities together with the air force units and units.
Teachings "Brotherhood in Arms"
It was a combined-arms event, which was held in the territory of the GDR and the Baltic waters adjacent to it. The exercises were conducted according to plans of the United Command. The leader of the operations was General of the German Army Hoffmann.During the exercise, 234 Guards Parachute Regiment of the Red Banner Chernigov Division was dropped. Everyone who was present at the observation deck was delighted with the training of the soldiers. All personnel received thanks from the Minister of Defense of the USSR and the award - Pennant for military valor and courage. It is worth saying that it was the first in the history of the Airborne Forces to release 1200 people from four hundred meters in difficult weather conditions. Marines of the Baltic Fleet also took part in the events. From the national army of the GDR, the 40th paratrooper battalion showed its skills. The exercise ended on September 12, 1980 with a parade in Magdeburg. Unlike previous events, Operation Brotherhood in Arms was distinguished by a wider range of tasks for operational training, a larger number of personnel, and territorial scope. These exercises have become a serious exam for the United Army. The conclusions that were obtained in the process of conducting maneuvers on operational art and tactics had a significant impact on the subsequent training of the Armed Forces.