Village Konstantinovo, Ryazan region: excursions, house Yesenin
In the expanses of Russia there are many corners that are not related to the well-known resorts, in whose territory comfortable hotels have not been built and good roads have not been laid. However, those who have been there at least once will forever remember their charm and the presence of the Russian spirit. To such places can be attributed, and many villages and villages, which themselves embody the essence of our Fatherland. And at the same time they allow their guests not only to admire the wonderful pictures of nature, but also to experience the flavor of the local population. These small settlements are marked in the very history of Russian culture and are significant places for the presence of great people in them. One of them is Yesenin’s birthplace - the village of Konstantinovo.
If we used to call Pushkin a world poet, then Yesenin is the most "Russian" poet of our era. How and where did his talent originate? What are the riversfields and forests inspired to create such amazing poems? You can answer these questions if you visit the homeland of Yesenin, in the village of Konstantinovo. It is here that those who do not forget about the origins of our culture come.
Where is the village Konstantinovo? Rybnovsky district of the Ryazan region - its location. His home can be seen on the right high and picturesque bank of the Oka. The village is located at a distance of 43 km in the north-west direction from Ryazan.
Konstantinovo is widely known for the fact that Sergey Aleksandrovich Yesenin, the great poet of our epoch, was born on October 3, 1895. Here he spent his childhood and youth. Today, in the center of the village is the State Museum-Reserve Yesenin.
The first mention of Konstantinovo is dated 1619. At that time the village was the property of the royal family. After a few decades, it was granted by Volkonsky and Myshetsky. These two noble families became the owners of Konstantinov. Most of the village was unsubscribed by Jacob Myshetsky. Subsequently, this part of Konstantinov became a dowry of his daughter Natalia, who married Kirill Naryshkin. In 1728the village began to own her son Semen. Young Naryshkin received a remarkable education in Europe and was in the diplomatic service. Semyon Kirillovich had no direct descendants, and therefore he bequeathed the village to Alexander Mikhailovich Golitsyn, his nephew.
A stone church was erected at the expense of the new owner in the village of Konstantinovo. They named it in honor of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God. In 1808, the village again changed its owner. They became Golitsyn's extramarital daughter - Ekaterina Aleksandrovna (after Dolgorukov's marriage). In 1843, according to the will she left, her nephews - Olsufyevs Vladimir Dmitrievich and Alexander Dmitrievich began to own the village. Two years later they decided to divide the aunt's inheritance. As a result, Alexander Dmitrievich became the sole owner of the village. In 1853, his son, Vladimir Alexandrovich, inherited.
The emancipation of the peasants
A significant event in the history of the village of Konstantinovo was the release in 1861 of the manifesto on the gift of personal freedom. At that time, there were 680 audit souls. The peasants received 740 sazhen, 1400 acres in the property. For the redemption of this land they had to pay 72,945 rubles.
Further development of the village
The Olsufyevs owned the Konstantinovs until 1879. After that, the village was taken over by the Kupriyanov merchants - Nikolay, Alexander and Sergey Grigorievich. They themselves were from Bogoroditsk.
The eldest of three brothers, Sergey, built a local school here and made a great contribution to the education of peasant children. But by the beginning of the 1900s, the Kupriyanov cases were declining. There came their ruin. And they were forced to sell the estate.
In 1897, I. P. Kulakov became the owner of the manor and house of the village of Konstantinovo. He was a millionaire from Moscow, an honorary citizen of the capital, who owns apartment houses on the Khutrov market.
Kulakov in the village was built a new school building, and the temple was decorated in the form of an oak iconostasis. For their good deeds, Ivan Petrovich was buried directly in the church wall, for which the order of the bishop of Zaraysk and Ryazan, Nikodim (Bokov), was received. After his death, Kulakova’s daughter, Lydia Ivanovna (after Kashin’s husband), became the mistress of the village. This happened in 1911. Lidia Ivanovna became a continuer of charitable activities initiated by her father. It is known that in 1916-1917. S. A. Yesenin was visiting her.
By the beginning of the 20th c. the village was finally formed. The main difference in its appearance was a significant length along the Oka River for more than 3 km. Its basis was the central wide street "Order", which had several ends. So called lanes, including Poteryaevka and Alekseyevka, and after a fire broke out in 1922, then New Village. All this constituted a single and whole settlement.
The village of Konstantinovo on its main square decorated the temple of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God. It also housed the Zemstvo School, the houses of the church shelter and the estate of the gentlemen.
There were places in the village where youth festivals took place. But the most attractive of them was on the banks of the Oka, not far from the chapel.
What houses were typical for the village of the Ryazan region? The farmstead included a dwelling built of pine wood and decorated with carved decor. The sizes of houses could be different and were depending on the wealth of the owners. The more affluent of them built their five walls. And on thatched roofs, there was a dormer window. To the porch in such estates adjoined the yard. A few distance away they built riga and barn.The size of the land plot, located directly next to such a house, was 40 acres. A garden was planted on them and a garden was planted. However, gradually over time, large families were divided. This led to the fact that new houses began to be built on the site of gardens. Sometimes there were three houses at once.
All the arable lands of the village were divided into three fields with peasant plots. In this land, the village workers conducted a three-field farming system. The soil of this corner of the Ryazan region is loamy, and it was possible to get a good harvest on it only with the introduction of a significant amount of fertilizer.
But the main wealth of the village Konstantinovo - Oki floodplain meadows. They were mowing a lot of hay, part of which was even marketed, and the rest was used as feed for livestock. The cows in the village were almost all owners. The excess milk was processed into cottage cheese, butter and sour cream and sold to buyers at the market in the neighboring village of Kuzminskoye.
During these times, rural trade was actively developing. For example, the Yesenin brothers (the uncle of the father of the great poet) and other enterprising peasants bought goods in bulk in Ryazan andsold it to fellow villagers at retail. The most successful of the local merchants was Nikolai Minakov. He managed to collect good capital and even built a stone house, in the basement of which he conducted his trade. The housing of the merchant was on the second floor. House Minakov can be seen during a trip to the village Konstantinovo. It is well preserved and in the future it is supposed to open within its walls a museum exhibition.
The arrival of Soviet power
The history of the village of Konstantinovo received its new development after the 1917 revolution. According to the Decree issued by the Soviet authorities, the estate located here was confiscated and passed into the hands of local authorities. In 1918, an orphanage was organized within its walls. This purpose of the former estate remained until 1923. Later, it was used as housing for local teachers. Located in the walls of this building and the plant engaged in consumer services.
In 1969 the building was transferred to the museum. Already a year after the repair, a literary composition opened in the building.
In 1930, residents of the village. Konstantinovo began to work on the collective farm. Then the labor artel also arose. In the 50s there was an enlargement of this economy.It became part of the collective farm named after Lenin, whose center was located in the village. Kuzminsky. Today it is LLC Yeseninsky.
Today numerous excursions to the village of Konstantinovo are visiting. Many admirers of the great poet, not only from our country, but also from abroad, are striving here.
Immediately after Sergey Yesenin died, admirers of his poetry began to come to his mother's village Konstantinovo. They traveled here, as a rule, on foot. Sergey Yesenin's mother, Tatiana Fedorovna, and after his sister Ekaterina and Alexandra met them in the house where the poet was born and grew up. In their notebooks, where the guests left their reviews, a huge number of records appeared, in which they expressed their wishes for the opening of the museum of the poet in the village of Konstantinovo.
The Government’s decree on this issue was made on July 28, 1965. Thanks to him, the poet’s memory was perpetuated. 10/02/1965 the opening of the Yesenin Museum in the village of Konstantinovo took place. He was a branch of the Ryazan regional museum.
Over the years of its existence, the poet's house has risen to the value of major Russian memorable places. The heart of this museum-reserve has always been and still remains the house in which Sergey Yesenin’s parents lived.Here in the hallway there is a corner of the poet himself, and at a distance by the window stands his wooden bed, covered with a blanket made from colorful patches. Not far from it is a little chest in which Sergei kept the books of his favorite writers. At the bed on the hanger hanging coat mother. The son called her shushun. The walls of the house are decorated with family photos, among which is the “meritorious list” of the future poet.
Interest in the house of Yesenin in the village of Konstantinovo steadily and rapidly growing. In this regard, in October 1969, in the house of the last owner of the estate Kashina opened a literary exhibition. Its exhibits make it possible to tell visitors in more detail and in depth about the life and creative years of the poet. In connection with the opening of the literary exposition, the memorial house-museum was renamed. Since September 1970, after the issuance of the corresponding Order of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, it became the literary-memorial museum of S. A. Yesenin.
The discovery of new expositions in the village of Konstantinovo continued in the 80s of the last century. So, in early 1972 the temple of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God entered the museum. At the request of local residents, the church was returned to the Ryazan Metropolis, and today it is operational.
In March 1984in the museum complex of the village Konstantinovo were:
- house of the Esenins;
- the estate of L. I. Kashina with the house and the adjacent park;
- Church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God;
- village square;
- the building of the former second-class teacher's school, which is located in the city of Spas-Klepiki;
- objects surrounding natural and architectural environment.
The creation of this State Museum-Reserve of S. A. Yesenin was approved by a decision of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR.
By the 90th anniversary of the birth of the poet realized the possibility of opening a new museum exhibition, which was located in Spas-Klepiki. The First All-Union Yesenin Festival of Poetry was also held here. It took place in 1985.
On the centenary of the poet spent the reconstruction of the museum. Two more museum expositions opened to this date. They are:
- Museum of the poem "Anna Snegina";
- Folk Primary Zemstvo School Konstantinovo.
The museum of the poem is located in the manor house that once belonged to L. I. Kashina. The poet has devoted his lyric lines to this last owner of the village. The museum staff recreated the atmosphere of the house of the time when Sergey Yesenin visited him.
In addition, the attention of visitors to the complex attracts and Zemstvo school of the village of Konstantinovo. From 1904 to 1909, the future poet studied there.This educational institution was restored to its original place to the centenary of Yesenin. The exposition of this museum contains exhibits that allow to reveal the role of Zemstvo schools, which they played in matters of upbringing and education of peasant children.
The literary exposition, opened in 1995, invites visitors to familiarize themselves with unique exhibits. Among them:
- published during the lifetime works of S. A. Yesenin;
- the book "Radunitsa", on which the author put his first autograph;
- Esenin's desk, on which he wrote during his stay in the Caucasus;
- death mask of the poet;
- personal belongings of Sergei Alexandrovich.
When visiting the new museum exposition, which is located in the Spas-Klepikovskiy school, graduated by Yesenin in 1912, guests can get acquainted with the high humanistic traditions of the Russian teachers, who helped them in finding ways to develop the spirituality of young people. That is what played a big role in the development of the creative personality of the great Russian poet.
But on this expansion of the museum has not stopped. In 2010, a new exposition was opened on the territory of the literary and historical reserve.It became the home of the local priest Smirnov, who stands near the temple of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God. In former times, this building was the cultural center of the village. Representatives of the local clergy, students and rural intelligentsia met here. Sergey Yesenin was a frequent guest in this house.
The road to the museum
How to get to the village Konstantinovo? From the capital, there is a train (express train) from Kazansky railway station, as well as an electric train on the route “Moscow - Ryazan”. Tickets must be purchased to the station called Rybnaya. Reaching her, you need to transfer to the minibus or bus number 132.
You can drive to the village of Konstantinovo through Ryazan. The bus number 960 goes from Moscow to this city. It leaves from the Kotelniki bus station. Arriving in Ryazan, you need to transfer to a minibus.
If you drive from Moscow in your car, then you need to move along the M5 highway towards Ryazan. Almost immediately after crossing the boundaries of the regions on the highway is a pointer to Konstantinovo. In his direction and should pave the further route. It is simply impossible to lose him. After all, along the road there is a large number of signs to the village where the Yesenin Museum is located. Before the estate is parking.It is free, but it is worth bearing in mind that finding a free place on it is problematic on weekends.