Venous insufficiency - treatment. Venous insufficiency of the lower limbs
Venous insufficiency is an extremely common problem. For such disappointing statistics, we can thank the modern lifestyle. Seated work, lack of physical activity, unhealthy diet - all of this adversely affects the work of the vascular system.
So what is this disease? What are her first symptoms? How dangerous can be the insufficiency of venous vessels? Are there effective treatments? These questions interest many patients.
What is the disease?
Venous insufficiency is a disease that some doctors jokingly call retribution for upright walking. It's no secret that veins are the vessels through which blood moves to the heart, and therefore against the force of gravity.Reverse blood flow is prevented by special venous valves. But with prolonged static loads (sitting, standing) the pressure on the valves and the walls of the vessels is too great.
First, the valves are stretched, after which the so-called venous reflux is often observed - the return flow of blood from top to bottom. An additional volume of fluid presses against the vessel wall, causing it to stretch and thin. Over time, the plasma begins to seep through the thin vascular wall, which then accumulates in the soft tissues, forming edema. Thus, not only the structure of blood vessels is disturbed, but also the nutrition of nearby tissues.
Recent statistical studies have shown that in developed countries at least 15-40% of the population suffers from venous insufficiency. And in most cases, the disease is diagnosed in people aged 20 to 50 years.
Unfortunately, the majority of sick people go to the doctor already at very late stages of the disease. This is what phlebologists consider the main problem. After all, the earlier the patient will be assisted, the easier it will be to eliminate the main symptoms and prevent the development of complications.
The main causes of the development of venous insufficiency of the lower extremities
In fact, chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities may develop under the influence of various factors. For a start it is worth noting that this disease often appears on the background of varicose veins. In addition, vascular insufficiency can be caused by some congenital pathologies of the superficial or deep veins. This group of diseases can include hypoplasia, aplasia, and the presence of arteriovenous fistulas.
Quite often, failure is the result of a flembotrombosis previously tolerated by the patient. More rarely, the disease develops after injury.
On the other hand, there are some risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing a disease in a person. For example, in some people there is a certain genetic predisposition, which is associated with a lack of connective tissue, resulting in a deficiency of collagen - the walls of blood vessels in these patients are less elastic.
Risk factors also include long-term static loads, which is observed in people whose profession requires a constant stay in a sitting or standing position (salespeople, cashiers, office workers).Do not forget about obesity, because those extra pounds are an additional burden for the cardiovascular system.
Chronic venous insufficiency in women is diagnosed much more often than in men. This is due to the constant fluctuations in estrogen levels, which is observed during pregnancy or taking hormonal drugs. The risk of developing deficiency increases with age. In addition, people at risk of suffering from chronic constipation are at risk.
Classification and severity of illness
In fact, in modern medicine there are several classification systems for this disease. For example, depending on the etiology, chronic venous insufficiency may be congenital (associated with certain anatomical features of the organism), primary (the cause of the disease is unknown) or secondary (the disease has developed as a result of injury, thrombosis or other venous disease).
Most often phlebologists use the following classification system, which takes into account the presence and intensity of symptoms:
- Grade 0 - a person has no symptoms of the disease.This category of people was allocated by chance, since the absence of signs does not always indicate full health. Some patients who have been diagnosed as deficient do not experience any discomfort, and there are also no external symptoms.
- With the first degree, periodically occurring pains in the legs are observed, as well as night cramps and a feeling of heaviness, which increases with prolonged static loads. Edema appears only from time to time.
- The second degree of severity is characterized by persistent edema. On the skin, you can replace the hyperpigmentation, as well as areas of moist or dry eczema.
- In the third degree, trophic ulcers appear on the skin, which periodically open and heal.
The main signs of the disease
Surely in the life of almost every person there is at least one risk factor under the influence of which venous insufficiency can develop. The symptoms of this disease is extremely important to know, because the sooner a person will pay attention to the deterioration of health, the sooner he will consult a doctor and receive quality treatment.
The first signs of venous insufficiency of the lower limbs are pain and swelling. As a rule, heaviness and soreness in the legs appear in the late afternoon. The discomfort is aggravated by prolonged staying upright. Puffiness also appears in the evening, with swelling visible only at the ankles and not spreading to the toes. In the morning, a person usually feels good, which is the most common reason for refusing medical advice.
If untreated, veno-lymphatic insufficiency moves to a new level - now the symptoms become more noticeable. A sick person suffers from persistent pain and burning pain in his legs. Edemas become persistent - they can be noticed at any time of the day. Many patients complain of night cramps, which affect the quality of sleep.
Due to insufficient blood circulation, trophicity (nutrition) of tissues is disturbed. Hyperpigmented areas may appear on the skin that look like small specks of brown. The skin over the affected vessels becomes thinner and begins to peel off - this is how eczema develops.
This is what venous insufficiency looks like. Her symptoms worsen with each passing month. The third stage of the disease is characterized by the appearance of trophic ulcers. Such skin lesions form gradually. First, a dark stain appears on the surface. Over time, a small compaction appears in its center, the appearance of which resembles a waxy paraffin. This area of the skin is extremely sensitive to mechanical stress - any blow or injury leads to the opening of the ulcer, which over time will only increase in size.
This is not all the danger with which venous insufficiency is associated. The photo shows the appearance of a future trophic ulcer. Such an open area on the skin becomes an excellent gateway for infection. Often the ulcerative process is complicated by various bacterial and fungal inflammations.
Modern diagnostic methods
Of course, when the first symptoms of the disease appear, you should go to the doctor. Only a specialist can correctly assess the condition of the patient’s body and diagnose venous insufficiency.
As a rule, the suspicion of the presence of problems with the vessels at the doctor arises even during the initial examination. However, the patient needs to undergo some tests.Standard tests are biochemical studies of blood and urine samples. These are not specific analyzes, but they make it possible to determine the presence of inflammation and some associated diseases. Complete blood count helps to find out the number of red blood cells, platelets and, accordingly, the index of blood viscosity.
The most informative procedure is an ultrasound examination of the vessels of the lower extremities. During the examination, a specialist can determine the presence of dilated portions of veins, nodules or clots.
In rare cases (if the ultrasound did not give an accurate result) the patient is prescribed more complex procedures. In particular, phlebography is considered to be a fairly accurate method. During the study, a special contrast agent is injected intravenously into the patient, and then they monitor its progress through the venous system.
Venous insufficiency of the lower limbs: treatment with conservative methods
When such a disease is detected, the question of therapy arises. How to treat venous insufficiency? To begin with, it is worth noting that this disease is chronic in nature, so the therapy in this case must be comprehensive and long-lasting.
The course of treatment is selected individually.Some patients take medication for two months, while other patients require a longer intake. In most cases, doctors prescribe medications that can strengthen the venous wall and normalize blood flow. Also used medications to help improve the nutrition of tissues - this prevents the appearance of trophic ulcers.
Special care is required for patients who have already started the ulcerative process. Damaged areas of the skin should be regularly treated with various antiseptic and wound healing solutions or ointments. Sometimes doctors prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs - in more severe cases, corticosteroid drugs are needed. If there is a high likelihood of blood clots, prescribe heparin or some other blood thinning medication.
It is this kind of therapy that requires venous insufficiency. Treatment also includes various physiotherapy methods that speed up the healing process. The most effective procedures include treatment with magnetic fields, dynamic currents. Also, patients with this diagnosis often go to electrophoresis.A good result is laser therapy.
To normalize blood circulation, it is recommended that sick people wear special compression stockings or pantyhose. Such devices help to get rid of edema, partially restore blood circulation and prevent stagnation of blood in soft tissues.
And, of course, therapeutic gymnastics are an integral part of quality therapy. Venous insufficiency of the lower extremities often develops against the background of a sedentary lifestyle. This risk factor can and should be eliminated. Naturally, those sports that involve heavy loads on the legs (football, basketball, weightlifting) are not suitable. But swimming or gymnastics will help improve health.
Surgical treatment of CVI
Surgery is usually prescribed in the event that conservative treatment was ineffective. To date, there are many surgical procedures. And the choice here depends on the severity of the disease, and on the condition of the patient, the presence of contraindications, etc.
At the first stage of the disease, sclerotherapy can be effective.During the procedure, a special preparation is injected into the affected vessel, which blocks the lumen of the vessel and stops the blood flow in this area of the vascular grid.
Unfortunately, this method can not always get rid of the disease called chronic venous insufficiency. Treatment of the second and third degree of the disease is an indication for more massive surgical intervention. Depending on the state of the vascular system, either ligation or removal of the enlarged portion of the vessel is carried out. Sometimes during the procedure, the plasticity of the vessels is also required - this makes it possible to normalize the blood flow. Naturally, after the operation should be a rehabilitation period. Some patients require an additional course of taking various drugs. And, of course, it is extremely important in the future to adhere to a healthy lifestyle and avoid exposure to risk factors, as the disease may return.
Possible complications of venous insufficiency
Venous insufficiency of the lower extremities is an extremely dangerous condition, which in no case should not be taken lightly.For a start, it is worth noting that the accumulation of significant volumes of blood in the vessels of the legs negatively affects the work of the whole organism. Since the nervous system does not receive enough oxygen and nutrients, patients with such a diagnosis often complain of persistent dizziness, fainting, problems with mental exertion. A frequent complication is cardiovascular failure.
This is not all the problems with which venous insufficiency is associated. The result of the disease may be phlebitis (inflammation of the venous walls) or thrombophlebitis (inflammation of the walls with the formation of blood clots). In turn, the separation of a blood clot and its entry into the bloodstream can lead to pulmonary embolism - the blockage of pulmonary vessels in the absence of emergency care, as a rule, ends in death.
Treatment of folk remedies
Today, many people of different ages face the diagnosis of venous insufficiency of the lower extremities. Treatment is a long and laborious process. Of course, the doctor should select the treatment for the patient. But there are some recipes for traditional medicine that can help speed up the process of recovery.
For example, folk healers highly recommend extracts from horse chestnut, as the extract of this plant really strengthens the venous walls. Another effective remedy is considered to be a hazelnut extract. Both bark and leaves of the plant are used as raw materials.
Kalanchoe is another useful plant that is used for compresses. To prepare you need to grind 50 g of leaves of plants and pour 500 ml of alcohol. The bank must be closed and kept in a dark place for seven days. After this infusion is ready to use. But to disinfect the surface of trophic ulcers, you can use an extract of Japanese Sophora.
In any case, it is worth understanding that the treatment of venous insufficiency with folk remedies is possible only after prior consultation with a doctor. The above recipes can only be used as an adjuvant therapy. In no case should not neglect the doctor's prescriptions.
Are there effective prevention methods?
Today, many people are diagnosed with venous insufficiency. Treatment is a long and complicated process.That is why it is much easier to try to prevent its development. Of course, there are no drugs that can permanently protect against vascular insufficiency. Nevertheless, adherence to some simple rules will help minimize the risk of developing the disease.
Since the main risk factor in this case is a sedentary lifestyle, then it is from there that one must begin. Not every person has the opportunity to change their lifestyle. But if you have to spend most of your work time in a sitting position, you should take breaks from time to time to stretch your legs. Physical activity is also a prerequisite - from time to time do some kind of gymnastic exercises, sign up for fitness or swimming courses, often go for a walk in the fresh air, run in the morning, etc.
Be sure to pay attention to the shoes - it should be comfortable. If necessary, you can always buy special orthopedic insoles. When resting or sleeping, try to keep your legs in a slightly raised position (for example, place a pillow under them).And, of course, keep an eye on body weight, as those extra pounds have a negative impact not only on the work of the vascular system, but also on the state of the whole organism.
If you regularly take hormonal contraceptives, then it is necessary from time to time to undergo an ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities. And, of course, at the first signs of the disease, it is necessary to consult a doctor. In the early stages of the problem is much easier to eliminate.
Insufficiency of cerebral vessels: what is it?
A common pathology today is venous insufficiency of the cerebral circulation. This disease develops under the influence of many factors that can lead to disruption of the normal outflow of blood from the cranial cavity.
As a rule, the disease develops against the background of other pathological conditions. The main causes of cerebral vascular insufficiency include craniocerebral injuries, brain edema, cardiovascular and pulmonary insufficiency, as well as brain tumors, pleurisy. Symptoms of the disease are often manifested in people who have had pleurisy or pneumothorax.Risk factors include hypertension, thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, as well as asthma. Sometimes the disease develops after asphyxia.
Venous insufficiency of the brain is sometimes asymptomatic. However, in most cases, patients complain of constantly emerging headaches. Soreness, as a rule, increases with sharp turns of the head, changes in temperature or atmospheric pressure, as well as during severe stress or alcohol intoxication.
In addition to the headache, there are other symptoms. In particular, patients noted constant fatigue, apathy and muscle weakness. Dizziness and tinnitus appear from time to time. Symptoms of venous insufficiency include sleep disorders, blackout in the eyes, mental disorders, epileptic seizures.
In any case, it should be understood that circulatory insufficiency of the brain is an extremely serious problem. Lack of timely treatment can lead to dangerous consequences. Therefore, in the presence of symptoms you should not hesitate to visit a doctor. In this case, complex therapy is needed, which is aimed at reducing edema, normalizing blood flow and improving the tone of the vascular walls.