The capital of Hungary, Budapest. History of Hungary, flag, cities
The capital of Hungary - Budapest - the famous "pearl of the Danube". A mighty river divides the city in half. A bridge over it was erected only in the nineteenth century. The design connected the Hungarian capital Buda and the cities of Obuda and Pest.
The capital of Hungary is the main political, commercial, cultural, transport and industrial center of the country. Approximately two million two hundred thousand people live in the city (this is one fifth of the whole of Hungary). By area, Budapest ranks sixth among all EU countries. This is the only city lying on both sides of the Danube. The two districts, separated by a river, differ significantly from each other in structural terms.
This part of the city is small in size, ancient, fascinating with its beauty. It charms with cobbled streets, small colorful houses, a combination of neoclassical and medieval architecture. Buda is built on gentle hills in the western part of the Danube.One of the main attractions - Fortress Hill - a narrow, flat and long elevation, located in the ring of well-preserved buildings in the Baroque, Renaissance or Gothic style. It is crowned with a majestic Royal Palace.
This part of the capital is located on the flat lands. Here is concentrated business life. In Pest, many large shopping complexes, built on wide avenues. Parliament building, built in neo-gothic style, is the most famous in the city. From a distance it resembles the English Parliament, but without the legendary Big Ben.
The capital of Hungary - Budapest - is located in the lowland Carpathian basin. It is surrounded by the Alps, the Carpathians and the South Slavic mountain ranges. The highest point of the city - the city of János. Its height is 527 meters. According to geotectonic data, the settlement is located in the fault zone. This explains the presence of many thermal springs, thanks to which the city gained fame as a beautiful resort.
A look into the past
The lands on which Hungary's capital, Budapest, is currently located, began to be settled more than one thousand years ago.It is established that from the third century BC here lived the tribes of the Celts. Shortly before the advent of our era, the territory became part of the Roman Empire. The Hungarians settled on these lands at the end of the ninth century. In the thirteenth century Buda received the status of the main city of the country. The ancient capital of Hungary was in distress in 1541, after the Turkish capture. The city gradually fell into decay, the number of its inhabitants decreased. The settlement managed to be released in 1686.
The eighteenth century marked the beginning of large-scale development. Many new districts appeared in the capital. The union of Buda, Obuda, and Pest occurred in 1873. Seven years later, a new concept of the city was developed, according to which new highways were laid and a triple boulevard ring was built near the avenue.
Because of the hostilities during the Second World Capital seriously suffered. However, after the war, many buildings were restored.
In 1950, the suburbs were connected to the central part of the city. Thus was formed the Big Budapest. Metro appeared in the capital in the 1960s.
The city of Budapest has an extensive public transport network. It includes twenty-nine tram lines, fourteen trolleybus lines and one hundred eighty bus lines. In addition, it includes a cog railway and three metro lines. Public transport begins its movement at half past four in the morning, and ends at eleven in the evening.
Within the capital are seven islands. These are Chepel, Haydjary siget, Margit, Palotai, Harosh-siget, Nepsiget and Molnar-siet.
Let us dwell on the island of Margit. He was thus named after the daughter of King Bela the Fourth Margaret (in Hungarian her name sounds like “Margit”). The length of the island is 2.5 km, and the area - 0.965 square meters. km Most of this object is occupied by the park and numerous recreational facilities. Bicycle paths, a fitness center and other entertainment areas are located on its territory. In the thirteenth century on the island was erected a monastery of the Dominican order. In it, the aforementioned Margaret labored. Later on. Margit fell into neglect. The period of oblivion ended only in the eighteenth century. A palace was built on the island, and the empty lands were planted with beautiful flowers and rare tree species.
The climate in the capital is temperate continental.Winters are usually mild and short. In summer the temperature is high, but the sweltering heat is rare.
Ferihegy International Airport began operating in 1950. Eleven years after its discovery, the length of the runway was increased from 2500 to 3010 meters. The airport is equipped with three passenger terminals. In 2011 he was named F. Liszt.
The capital of Hungary is a very popular tourist destination. In Budapest, many beautiful monuments, established as many centuries ago, and in our days. Of particular interest is the architecture of the city, reflecting the diversity of styles.
It is located in the old part of the city. For the first time this palace became the residence of the king in the thirteenth century, and successfully carried out the functions assigned to it for another seven hundred years. It was inhabited by such kings as Layosh the Great, Charles the Third and Matthias the First. Currently, the palace is the site of many museums.
The capital of Hungary is famous for another unusual place. This is a natural labyrinth located under the palace described above.There are no more such natural catacombs anywhere on the planet.
The length of the labyrinth is 1 kilometer 200 meters. Its depth is sixteen meters. Every day (except Saturdays and Sundays), fascinating excursions are held on the territory of these catacombs. Presented in the labyrinth of the exhibition covers the history of Hungary from antiquity to the present day. The traditional end of each tour is a buffet.
The cities of Hungary Pest, Obuda and Buda were united in 1873. Seven years after this momentous event, members of the National Assembly decided to build a parliament building. This was supposed to underline the sovereignty of the Hungarian nation. The winner in the announced competition was the architect I. Shteyndl. Some ideas of his rivals were implemented in the buildings of the Ethnographic Museum and the Ministry of Agriculture.
Work on the landmark building was begun in 1885. Eleven years later, the first meeting of the National Assembly was held within its walls. Construction was fully completed only in 1906. The building was built in an eclectic style.In addition, it is possible to consider the features of the Renaissance, Neo-Gothic and Baroque.
This square is one of the main in the capital. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Nearby is the City Park. The Millennium Memorial has been erected in the center of the square. This is a composition with the leaders of the seven tribes who founded Hungary in the ninth century, as well as with other prominent historical figures who played an important role in the development of the state.
This is one of the most impressive areas of the capital. It is surrounded by beautiful buildings - the Hungarian National Bank, the American Embassy and the television center. In the northern part of the square you can see the monument to Soviet soldiers.
This is the heart of the capital. This street is pedestrian. It originates from the square. Voreoshmarti, runs along the Danube and rests on the square. Fevam and picturesque market. There are many shops on Vaci, which is why the street is so popular with tourists and local fashionistas. She is known not only for its boutiques. In this area you can see the unique monuments of architecture. The facades of many buildings are decorated with mosaics and intricate cast-iron decorations.Vaci is called the center of not only shopping, but also entertainment. On the street with a length of several hundred meters there are elite restaurants and budget cafes, as well as hotels of different levels.
Its construction began in 1870. Some say that this avenue is somewhat reminiscent of the notorious Champs Elysees. At the end of each summer, it becomes the venue for the famous Budapest parade.
More about the state
Hungary is a country that is located in the center of Europe. Ten million people live on its territory. The total area is ninety-three thousand square kilometers. Hungary is ranked eighth in the world by territory and eighty-ninth in terms of population. The language endowed with the status of the state - Hungarian.
The country consists of twenty administrative units. She does not have access to the sea. Hungary on the world map is bordered by Serbia, Ukraine, Croatia, Romania, Austria and Slovenia.
The prevailing religion is Catholicism. Its adherents are more than fifty percent of the inhabitants of the country. Currently, Hungary (Budapest - the capital) is considered a country with a dynamic economy. Since 1955, she is a member of NATO.
Up until the beginning of the fourteenth century, the Arpadas ruled the country. Then they were replaced by the dynasties of Anjou, Jagiellonian, as well as non-dynastic monarchs. In 1687 the state became part of the possessions of the Habsburgs. 1848-1849 marked by a national revolution. Its leader was Layosh Kossuth. The uprising was suppressed only thanks to the help of the Russian Expeditionary Force. He was commanded by General Paskevich. But still in 1867 Franz Joseph compromised with the country's elite. The result was the transformation of the Austrian empire into a dual state. The history of Austria-Hungary entered a new direction. A legislative body was formed in the country - the State Assembly, which consisted of two chambers - Deputies and Peers.
Charles of Austria - the last Hungarian king - ascended the throne in 1916 under the name of Charles the Fourth. His removal from power took place two years later. The ruler died in absolute oblivion in 1922. It is noteworthy that in 2004, at the initiative of the Catholic Church, he was canonized.
The result of the democratic uprisings that swept the country after the First World War was the collapse of the Austrian monarchy.The following states were formed on its lands: Czechoslovakia, Austria, the Kingdom of Slovenes, Serbs and Croats, as well as Hungary. There are four more independent countries on the world map.
11/16/1918 Hungary gained the status of a people's republic, but soon it was lost. This happened as a result of the monarchical rebellion. 08/06/1919 the republic fell. The monarchy was restored, but it was not possible to determine the king. The head of state was appointed regent Miklos Horthy.
In 1938, Hungary entered into an alliance with Hitler Germany. Thanks to this, the map of the country was supplemented with the following territories: Transcarpathia and part of Czechoslovakia. Two years later, Transylvania was also part of the state. After Hungary was occupied by the forces of the anti-Hitler coalition, the regent hastily left the country. The State Assembly was convened in the fall of 1945. In 1946, its representatives passed a law on state form. According to this document, Hungary (the map is presented in the article) acquired the status of a republic. The head of the country, respectively, was henceforth a president elected by the State Assembly.
Features of economic development
Hungary (see photo in the article) is a country with a rapidly developing economy. Most market transformations in it are almost complete. As for the advantages of the established system, they are as follows: at present, the country is open to foreign investment, it has an efficient taxation system, and the bureaucratization has been reduced to the minimum possible. In addition, Hungary is distinguished by developed industrial production (this is especially observed in modernized enterprises), declining inflation and a fully convertible currency (since 2001). When listing the weaknesses of the current economic system, first of all, mention is made of a gap in domestic development, in which the eastern rural areas do not have adequate funding. The difference in incomes of the population is still high. Energy produced is not enough. Money laundering is not controlled at the proper level.
The main partner of the country in foreign trade is Germany, providing more than twenty-five percent of Hungary's trade.
A significant reduction and reform of the country's armed forces was carried out at the end of the Cold War. Today they are formed from two clans - the Air Force and the Army. The latter are also known as Honvedseg (Corps of Defenders of the Motherland).
Hungary (Budapest - the capital of the country) began to be guided by new standards in the organization of the army and weapons after joining NATO. In 2004, a transition was made from universal conscription to a professional army.
The flag of Hungary is a rectangular panel. It consists of three identical horizontal stripes of red, white and green colors. The ratio of length to width is 3: 2. Why is the flag of Hungary painted in precisely such colors? This is explained as follows: red stands for the blood of patriots shed in the battles for the independence of the country; white - a symbol of nobility and morality of the Hungarian people; Green reflects hope for a blessed future for the country.
The coat of arms of Hungary is a shield divided into two parts (on the left are red and white stripes, on the right is a patriarchal cross resting on a golden crown that stands on a green hill with three peaks). He is crowned with a crown of St. Stefan.
The most remarkable localities of the country
A map of Hungary with cities, which you can see below, gives an idea of the territorial division of the country. The largest area near the capital is Budapest, the smallest is near the town of Palzach with its 1114 inhabitants. The largest village of Solymar is home to ten thousand people, and the smallest is only twenty.
The eastern capital of the country is called Debrecen. It regularly becomes a venue for various events, including poetry festivals, jazz days, international choir competitions and stunning flower carnivals.
Especially popular among museum lovers is the small Orthodox city of Szentendre. It has a special charm thanks to its pretty streets and beautifully decorated houses. Numerous pastry shops will leave unforgettable impressions, from which comes the dizzying aroma of fresh pastries.
Once Vyshegrad city was the capital of the state. At present, only ruins are left from it. By a mystical coincidence, only the Tower of Solomon, which for a long time was the place of imprisonment of the notorious Count Dracula, survived. The town is located forty kilometers from the capital.
Hungary (photos are presented in the article) is an incredibly beautiful country. And it is famous not only for its architectural monuments, museums, monuments, etc. There are many natural attractions on its territory. Let's talk about some of them in more detail.
This lake is the largest in Central Europe. On its coast thermal and mineral springs are beating. The reservoir is navigable, more than twenty species of fish inhabit it. A special service has been organized to care for the numerous swans living in these places.
National Park on the Balaton Upland
It is located north of. Balaton. The park was founded in 1997. It has a volcanic landscape. This area is mountainous, there you can see extinct volcanoes, and the empty geysers, and lava outcrops, remembered for their bizarre forms. On the western meadow of Shashdi you can see a relict plant of the ice age - powdery primrose. It is not found anywhere else in Hungary.
This thermal lake is located near the town of the same name. Its area is forty-seven and a half thousand square kilometers.The water in this lake is rich in ammonium, potassium, calcium, sodium, fluorides, chlorides, iodides, bromides, carbonate peroxide, sulfates, sulfides, metaboric acid and dissolved oxygen. It is not surprising that this place is popular among those who want to improve their health.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Many cities in Hungary are famous for their unique sights of particular cultural, historical and architectural value. And not only in the capital there is something to see.
This village is the only ethnographic open-air museum of its kind. It is noteworthy that people still live in it. The entire population of Khollokё, which is more than four hundred people, is sensitive to the preservation of the folk traditions and way of life of the ancestors. Most of the buildings in the village are mud houses with verandas decorated with ornate carvings. Locals are actively involved in pottery, traditional embroidery, wood carving. Visiting this place leaves an indelible impression, especially among residents of big cities.
They are located on the territory of the National Park. The most famous and biggest is Baradla. Its length is twenty-six kilometers.
This mountain range is located on the border of two states - Slovakia and Hungary. Since 1973 it has been guarded as a special form of relief. The nearby territory has the status of a biosphere reserve. The massif consists of limestone and dolomite. It is covered with hornbeam and oak forests.
Hungary is a country with a long and complex history. Its capital - Budapest - has an interesting origin. The main city of the state was formed through the merger of several settlements. The Danube, as if cutting Budapest in half, is a kind of border between the two parts of the capital, contrasting from a historical and geographical point of view. The map of Hungary with cities presented in the article reflects this feature of the city.