The Bukhtarma reservoir is one of the five largest artificial reservoirs in the world.
East Kazakhstan region borders with China and Russia. There is a sharply continental climate and regular sudden changes in temperature throughout the day. In the summer it is hot, but dry, and the winter is snowy and cold. This is due to the fact that the region is located on the territory of the Altai mountain range and the Saur-Tarbagatai mountains, whose peaks are covered with eternal glaciers.
The greatest treasure of the East Kazakhstan region is water. The region accounts for more than 40% of all water reserves in Kazakhstan. There are more than 880 rivers in the region, the length of which exceeds 10 thousand kilometers. The largest: Irtysh, Kalzhyr, Black Irtysh, Uba. On the Irtysh River 3 hydroelectric power stations were built.
In addition to rivers, there are more than 1000 lakes in the region, the area of which exceeds 1 hectare. A huge number of them is located in the northeast and north of the territorial unit. The largest lakes include Caracol, Zaisan, Ulmes.
The largest artificial reservoir on the Irtysh River is the Bakhtarma reservoir. He is also among the five largest artificial reservoirs on the entire planet.
The reservoir was formed due to the construction of hydroelectric power plants, in 1966. Total area occupied - 5490 km2. The length of the reservoir is about 425 kilometers. In the deepest place to the bottom - 9 meters. In the widest places, the length from one to the other shore is 35 kilometers. Against the background of such a huge scale, many bays and gulfs have formed, which in some places reach 50 kilometers. For the same reason, the water level throughout the reservoir is unstable, and the difference can reach 5 meters. Therefore, a crossing for people and cars is organized on the reservoir.
Locals call the pond a sea, and in fact, in some places from the other side there is absolutely no other, it merges with the horizon line. In addition, the surrounding area has a unique natural landscape.
Bukhtarma reservoir consists of two parts:
- river plot in the valley of the Irtysh;
- plot on the lake Zaisan.
Purpose and history of creation
The main purpose of the construction of reservoirs is the satisfaction of the energy industry (increase in secured capacity), for irrigation.The same functions are assigned to the Bukhtarma reservoir. The waters of the lake are also used for irrigation of fields located in East Kazakhstan and Pavlodar.
In addition, the lake has improved the conditions for the passage of ships along the Irtysh River to the city of Omsk.
There are a lot of fish in the waters of the reservoir, from sturgeon to bream. On the shores of the lake built resorts, recreation centers and boarding houses.
Flora and fauna
The entire territory of the foothills of Kazakhstan is a picturesque place where nature is so diverse that it is impossible to understand how an impenetrable forest grows near the desert, and behind the mountain immediately an immense steppe and many lakes and rivers.
The northern part of the Bukhtarma reservoir is characterized as forest, currant, birch, cedar, viburnum, and larch grow here.
In the east, mainly grow medicinal plants. This is a golden root, kopechnik and Rhodiola Rosea.
More than 400 species of birds live on the shores of the lake, from the most beautiful whooper swans to rare merganser and black storks. Mammals have approximately 60 species. These are bears, roes, mountain goats, squirrels, weasels and ermines.
The waters are rich in fish; trout, taimen, grayling, pike and others live in the lake.
In 2013, a stain of white-gray color of unknown origin was found in the waters of an artificial lake. Under the spot was 7 kilometers. Immediately, a local laboratory took water samples for analysis. The results showed that the water contains a high content of ammonium salt, which exceeded the permissible rate by 37 times, and the amount of nitrates exceeded the norm by 136 times.
The investigation confirmed that the pollution had come from above, from the Bukhtarma river, on the banks of which a dam was being built. And at its construction used the soil, which was mined from the former mine.
Bukhtarma reservoir is famous for the amount of fish. We can say that it is a storehouse of ichthyofauna. Even novices do not leave the lake without a catch. Pike, grayling, trout, crucian carp, pike perch and carp are well caught.
There are always many tourists at the Bukhtarma reservoir. After all, it is an opportunity, without leaving the border, to soak up the sun and swim in clear water surrounded by high mountains and pines.
On the shores of an artificial reservoir there are more than 20 recreation centers and living courtyards. Not only residents of Kazakhstan, but also from Russia come here.The most popular include:
|Hotel "Melada"||Located near the mountain Mokhnaty. Two-storey hotel of the European level with two-level cottages. All rooms are equipped with sanitary facilities and shower cabins, hot and cold water around the clock. On the territory there is a restaurant, cafe, kitchen for self-catering, sauna and bath. Address: Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kabanbay Batyr, 140.|
|Recreation center "Through the Looking Glass"||This is the first coastline (50 meters), near the village of New Bukhtarma. All houses are equipped with toilets and showers. On the territory there is a playground and a bath. It offers guests water rides and boat trips.|
|Recreation center "Crossroads"||Not far from the village. Novaya Bukhtarma is located 10 houses with all the facilities for a family holiday. On the shore organized recreational activities, you can ride a scooter or catamaran. You can rent mountain bikes and ride around the area with the whole family.|
Naturally, these are not all recreation centers on the Bukhtarma reservoir, each of which offers different services at a different cost. On the banks of the reservoir you can stay in a tent.But, the most important thing is that you should definitely come here, because this is clear water and magnificent nature, and therefore, excellent rest.