Sushi: what is it, how are they cooked and how are they eaten. Japanese food
Sushi - what is it? This question arises for anyone who first encounters with the kitchen. It is worth noting that this is a very common dish for this Asian country. It is made from rice, seafood, as well as some other ingredients. In the world, they became known and popular only in the 80s of the XX century.
Where did sushi come from?
Answering the question "Sushi - what is it", the first thing is to refer to the history of this dish. Sushi appeared in Southeast Asia, while it is still unknown in which country. Among the options are China, Thailand or Vietnam. It happened around the IV century BC. In Japan, this recipe came only after about a millennium.
Interestingly, the originally sticky rice, which is now used for sushi, served exclusively for the storage of fish. It was the only way to save the catch for several months. To do this, raw fish was cut, covered with salt and placed under pressure. In about two months she was ready.
Over time, it turned out that rice accelerates the fermentation process, with it the shelf life of fish increases to two years. The fact is that in the fermentation process lactic acid is released. With this method, raw fish becomes edible after a few days, and during long-term storage it acquires a special taste. The lactic acid contained in rice breaks down fish into amino acids and makes the product easily digestible.
In Japanese cuisine, sushi began to be used everywhere around the VIII-X centuries. The recipe came from China, but the chefs have improved it. They began to wrap in rice soaked in vinegar, fresh fish, not salted. This is how the prototype of modern sushi appeared. Only then it became a separate dish, and not a way to store fish.
In the XVII century, the recipe was modernized. As the ingredients they began to use not only fish, but also other seafood. And not only fresh, but also pickled. Some cooks began to add dried vegetables. Every Japanese province has its own way of making delicious sushi. Then to this dish began to serve sauces and wasabi.
First fast food
In the XIX century there were changes that made sushi popular throughout the world. The fact is that Tokyo was already a bustling city at that time, in which there were many busy people. Then cook Hanaya Yohei invented nigiri sushi. They became the first prototype of modern fast food. They have become convenient to take with you on the road and eat not only with chopsticks, but also with your hands. It became possible to eat quickly and almost anywhere. The fish did not undergo any fermentation, but at the same time it was quickly processed in seasonings, and therefore did not need any other sauces.
In their modern form, nigiri sushi is a seasoned rice on which a slice of fish lies. So that the dish does not fall apart, it is tied with a ribbon of algae.
Nowadays, outside of Japan, sushi is considered a delicious dish that can be ordered in the most expensive restaurants. Now you will answer the question: sushi - what is it?
In recent years, these delicious sushi have ceased to be a dish of exclusively Japanese cuisine. There are many options and fillings in various countries around the world. Today you can even find recipes with bacon. Their shape is also changing.
It is worth noting that sushi is valued not only for their attractive appearance, but also for the fact that this dish contains all the components necessary for the human body. It is low in fat and calories. At the same time, there are many trace elements and amino acids. Therefore, they are so popular with people who care about their shape and proper nutrition.
Careful only to be with sushi, cooked according to Western recipes. In them the very balance may not be.
With all the advantages of this dish do not forget that it contains many dangers.
First, the fact is that sushi uses only raw seafood and fish. And they can become carriers of pathogenic bacteria.
Secondly, almost all predatory fish, and first of all tuna fish, contain mercury in small quantities. This can be harmful for those who eat sushi too often.
In addition, soy sauce, which is served with this dish, is too salty. It is not recommended for hypertensive patients or people with kidney disease.
Types of sushi and names
In the modern world there are many basic types of sushi.They are divided into several categories - these are Gunkan, Nigiri, Maki and Temaki.
Temaki is sushi in the form of a cone. Nori is rolled into this shape, filling it with rice and the filling itself. In length can reach 10 centimeters.
Nigiri is the easiest kind of sushi. We have already talked about it in detail in this article.
Gunkan differ oval shape. In them, the rice is wrapped with a wide strip of nori around the perimeter. And the stuffing is already on top.
Poppies are divided into several varieties. These are Hosomak - only three main components (rice, stuffing and nori). In this case, the filling of any one component - only fish, shrimp or crab. Big sushi is called futomaki. For them, various fillings can already be used, including a combined one. Popular options such as tuna with cucumber or salmon with avocado. Finally, uramaks. These are inverted rolls that are cooked with rice outside. They are loved for the fact that the most delicious part of the dish is immediately on the tongue.
Ingredients for sushi. Cooking secrets
Now, answering the question, sushi - what is it, you know that the main ingredient for this dish is rice. The classic recipe uses the Japanese short grain form, which is high in gluten. It is seasoned with sweet vinegar, salt and sugar.In some cases, sake. Its main property is stickiness.
However, it is tougher than the more familiar to us, because the preparation of rice for sushi is carried out in a small amount of water. To the consistency was necessary, it is cooled, mixing in a wooden bowl. It is important before cooking rice for sushi it needs to be cooled to room temperature.
Another ingredient is nori. These are thin plates of roasted seaweed, rolls are wrapped in them. I use all kinds of fish as a filling, for example, salmon, herring, tuna or mackerel. Most often, the fish is raw, but sometimes it can be applied salty and even fried. Often, fish is replaced or combined with seafood. Oysters, shrimps, clams, crabs, octopuses are used.
Among the varieties of sushi there are dishes with pickled or fresh vegetables and even fruits. Cooks put cucumber, daikon, apples, avocados, onions. Can also add cheese or tofu.
Sushi is always served with soy sauce. Thus, the taste is enhanced. Sushi is also traditionally seasoned with wasabi. This is a hot green sauce. And also pickled ginger, which is called gari.It helps to refresh taste buds in order to fully experience the differences between one type of sushi and another.
Japanese most often drink green tea with the dish.
How to eat sushi?
Let's say right away, there is sushi very convenient. They are specially made small in size so as not to bite. Some species are simply impossible to bite off without destroying the entire structure.
Only the top of the land should be dipped into the sauce. Dip rice in soy sauce is not necessary. On the language it is recommended to put the top layer.
There is a more original way. Ginger is first dipped into the sauce and the upper part of sushi is already smeared with it.
The Japanese eat sushi with their hands and chopsticks. If you follow modern etiquette, it’s forbidden for women to eat sushi with their hands. Now you know exactly how to eat sushi.
Cooking this dish should start with rice. Experienced cooks recommend taking 300 milliliters of Japanese round rice, rinse several times until the water is completely clear. After it needs to be dried.
In a saucepan, pour rice with 350 milliliters of water and cook over high heat for about five minutes. When the water boils, reduce the heat to minimum.On weak heating rice cooks for another 10 minutes under the lid. In the finished product, add two tablespoons of rice vinegar, one tablespoon of sugar, one and a half tablespoons of sea salt.
Transfer the rice to a wide bowl, cool to room temperature.
One of the most popular recipes of this dish is Maki Sushi. For it is necessary to cut into thin slices of salted salmon fillet and cucumber. Lay a plastic wrap on the bamboo mat and put a nori sheet on top.
Distribute the rice evenly over it, leaving a few centimeters from the far edge. So that the rice does not stick to the hands, it is better to wet them in cold water. Put cucumber and salmon on the near edge, add a little wasabi and roll up the roll tightly using a rug.
Then cut it with a sharp knife into circles, each about two centimeters wide.