Structure of the economy of Russia
Potentially, the Russian Federation iseconomically strong state. The first place in the world for occupied territory, the richest reserves of natural resources, the population, although not the largest, but in terms of opportunities (education, professional level) is a tasty morsel for any developed country.
However, the turbulent events of the twentieth century, a complexpolitical and economic situation, etc., sharply reduced favorable options for the development of the structure of the economy. After another cataclysm in the early 1990s, our country was in a difficult situation, when potentially positive opportunities were crossed out by a general crisis.
General characteristics of the Russian economy
The modern structure of the economy is constantlychanges. Russia of the second decade of the twenty-first century is a state with an economy of an industrial-agrarian type, in which advanced industries and highly developed regions coexist with underdeveloped enterprises and backward provinces.
Today Russia is a multi-level economicmechanism, formed on the basis of historical development, interregional territorial economic division of labor and integration results. The general economic complex of the state consists of branch and territorial systems.
In terms of production, the economy of Russiais mainly divided into branches. What is the branch structure of the economy? In modern economy, the industry is a community of producers of one type (direction). Traditionally, the industries relate to industry and agriculture, in which they are subdivided into even narrower groups.
In the sectoral structure of Russia's economy, so farthe disproportions of the past years remain: the extractive branches of the economy have increased importance; priority will be fuel industries, whereas transport and agricultural complexes until recently are in great difficulty; remain a sharp concentration and a large monopolization of production.
For example,is indicated by large scales of specialization. Many branches, sub-sectors and types of industries have emerged, creating in their community a branch system of industry. In the existing systematization of industry, 11 large integrated industries and 134 sub-sectors have been formed.
For the economy of the country in recent decadesThe characteristic feature is the existence of not only branch enterprises, but also interindustry complexes. Increasingly, there is a process of consolidating production links, uniting different levels of production. Interindustry production (complexes) appears and is formed both within certain industries, and between different industries having close technological relations. Now there are complexes in the extractive, raw materials industries and in agriculture. One example is chemical forestry.
There are other features, characteristic signs of the Russian economy of our time.
Territorial structure of the economy of Russia
It implies the unification of the system of economyon a territorial basis - to regions, economic regions, industrial centers and so on. This structure is modified much more slowly than the industry structure, as its leading elements are more rigidly attached to a certain territory. The development of new areas with the richest natural resources transforms the level of specific regions and contributes to the formation of the next territorial economic complexes.
A serious drawback of Russia was the asymmetricthe system of its space, obtained as a result of development in previous eras. In the territorial economic system, the Central Region (Moscow), which is headed by the capital, significantly prevails, the next city of Russia - St. Petersburg - is inferior to Moscow in various sizes. And all other regions, in contrast to the metropolitan metropolis, are economically much weaker.
Territorial division of Russia
Types of territorial structure of the economy andconcrete productions develop under the influence of a number of interdependent factors: the availability of raw materials, fuels, various materials, personnel workers. During the distribution of industrial production, various types of its territorial associations were formed.
Large economic zones are large lengths with specific natural and economic conditions for the formation of the economy.
Now our country is divided into two large economic zones:
- Western (European part of Russia in conjunction with the Urals), which is characterized by a shortage of raw materials, resources, the presence of a large number of industrial production.
- Eastern (Siberia and the Far East). It is characterized by the presence of significant reserves of resources, inadequate economic development.
Industrial areas are large areas withrelatively equal natural economic conditions, with the aim of development of the economy characteristic of them, with the proper established production and personnel base, etc.
In the Russian state there are approximately 30 only industrial regions, most of them in the western zone.
In addition, there are other economic associations that are formed due to objective economic need: transport, raw materials, production, etc.
General characteristics of industry
Industry is an essential parteconomic complex of our country. The predominant role of industry is due to the fact that it supplies all sectors of the domestic economy with production capacities and raw materials, plays the most proactive factors in NTP and increased reproduction in general. By now, there are almost 500 thousand industrial enterprises in the country, where about 15 million people work, producing various products for 20 trillion rubles. This determines the structure of the economy of Russia.
Among some types of heavy industry andadjacent industries occupy more than 30%, fuel - almost 20%, electricity - 8%. At the same time, the state of the light industry is in a depressing state -1.5%, the food industry - 15%, etc.
What changes are taking place in the structure of the economy of Russia? Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, Russian statistics have come to a different systematization of industry:
- processing industrial production (67%);
- extraction of minerals (more than 20%);
- production and separation of electricity, natural gas and water (10%).
- technical progress.
The modern industry of our country is determined by:
Such a structure of the economy of the industry can not be considered effective. In recent years, there has been a tendency for economic restructuring, but the process has just begun and will clearly be long and difficult.
Power and fuel
In the structure of the economy of Russiafuel and energy complex is one of the most important types of consolidated economic associations, which is a set of tightly connected and interacting energy enterprises, producing fuel that supply the domestic economy and the country's population with important resources and being one of the important types of goods in the foreign market.
The share of fuel and energy complex in the recent history of the country is about 60% in the total volume of Russia's exports.
The fuel produced on an industrial scale is the main source of energy in the existing economy. On fuel wealth, the structure of the economy of Russia has a leading place in the world.
According to the main types of resources, there are industries that produce gaseous, liquid and solid fuels.
Each species has its own advantages. Gas (in Russia there are approximately 30% of the explored total reserves of natural gas) is cheap, easily transferred without loss of quality. A large number of gas pipelines come from Eastern Russia to Europe, in recent years the length of gas pipelines in Asia has been increasing.
Russia has a large enough explored reserves of oil. Oil is used not only as fuel, but also as fuel for internal engines and raw materials for petrochemicals.
The largest volumes of mankind fuel are concentrated in Russia. The coal industry is one of the largest in terms of the number of workers and the value of the main industrial funds.
Electric energy is the main locomotive of the economy. In the production of this type of energy, the structure of the economy of our country is at one of the leading places in the world.
Leading power producers are thermal power plants, hydroelectric power plants and nuclear power plants.
TPP produces almost 70% of Russian electricity. They are created relatively quickly and with minimal costs. The fuel used is coal, fuel oil and peat.
HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATIONS bring 15% of the total power generation. They are created on large rivers. In Russia, the world's largest hydroelectric power stations.
Nuclear power plants generate up to 14% of electricity.
They are created in production areas where large energy reserves are needed.
In the complex there is a black and color industry.
Speaking of ferrous metallurgy, it must be said that ferrous metallurgy enterprises contain a full metallurgical cycle, there is also a reworking development (without cast iron).
Russia occupies the leading place in the world in the production of ferrous metals.
Factors that affect the distribution of enterprises:
- presence of a large amount of raw materials;
- cheap fuel;
- much water;
- inexpensive electricity.
Due to this, enterprises are located either in the areas of receipt of raw materials, or in areas where fuel is produced.
Main directions of the agrarian sector
The structure of agriculture depends on climate and natural resources. The large scale of our country contributed to the formation of economic regions.
In this sector there have always been twodirections are crop production and animal husbandry, which once determined the state of entire nations, but now seriously affect economic development. Both of them, respectively, are divided into dozens of industries.
Serious specificity of agricultural activities will beConstant dependence on natural factors, in particular from agroclimatic changes. These circumstances determine not one physical geography, but also the leading specialization of directions. There are various branches of the agrarian sphere, from ordinary to exotic in the form of pineapple crops and shrimp grocery farms. But they are all united by one moment. The created product will always be needed by the consumer.
The man began to engage in agriculture in order to havea significant harvest for food, for a long time. In our country - a few thousand years ago. Now in Russia the land is cultivated mainly in the forest-steppe and steppe zones.
Domestic agriculture has a brightzoning, the types of farm structure are constantly changing. This is clear to everyone: it is impossible to receive beets or potatoes in permafrost. In addition, you need sales. Therefore, near large cities, agriculture is also developing particularly rapidly. There was a suburban type of agricultural economy. And in the northern territories near the cities, the development of plant growing in a closed ground develops.
The European part is the most favorableagrarian region in our country. The agricultural areas are a continuous strip. In other regions, the situation is much worse and selective. Hence the great difference between the volume of production, the nomenclature of crops and so on.
In general, the agrarian sector in Russia is mainly the gold fields, on which the future breads are located. Hard and soft varieties grow. They are followed by other cultures.
Livestock always gave a lot of production. One meat of what it costs. Without this product, there would not be a person. You can not recognize human civilization without milk. And a number of other products. But the scope of work and responsibility are great.
In Russia, mainly cattle are grown, they are fed in most regions. Many people also get pig meat.
All regions are to some extent exporters of meat and other food products. In the North, get venison. In mountainous areas there are many goats and sheep.