Sizran. Part 2: Different
I think everyone ever heard out of the ear about the secret Russian missile Syzran, from the defeat of which any city in the world becomes like Syzran. In my opinion, this is a much deeper image than it seems, akin to "Asians in Europe and Europeans in Asia" - from time immemorial what Russia carried to other nations was barbaric for some and civilization for others. But the real Syzran is not the worst and not the best, but quite the average such Russian city. In the last part we walked along its main street, and now we will look at other areas.
Ibid, in the last part, I showed the Syzran-1 railway station - the main gate of the city. Yes, and the entire Samara region, after all, Syzran is a junction of 6 railway directions: to Penza (from 1874), Samara (from 1877), Moscow (from 1897), Saratov (from 1931), Ulyanovsk (from 1943) and Tolyatti (from 1962) ), and all of them somehow train. Therefore, how many stations in Syzran and what is generally considered to be such are not even local ones (here, for example, an inactive Kazan railway station). But passenger trains in addition to Syzran-1 also arrive at Syzran-Gorod, a small station in the Saratov direction,lost in the underbelly of the central Soviet street at the edge of the machine-building industrial zone going down to the Volga. In the role of the station square, there is a mud wasteland, buses do not go here on the narrow, muddy streets, the station looks like a shed, and here I was expecting only harmful from boredom ... but the inside turned out to be noisy and crowded, at the entrance the policeman checked the guest’s documents from the south Republics, ”and the schedule in the tiny waiting room occupied a good half of the shabby wall. Basically, trains from the South to Siberia stop here ... or, for example, from Samara to Saratov.
Sovetskaya Street hangs over the station, and the shortest way to Syzran-City lies along Victory Descent (this is the official name!), Going down east of Sterlyadkin’s house:
Closer to the top of Sovetskaya, under the mountain there are high-rise buildings, completely covering the view of Old Syzran from the Volga. Locals blame Mikhail Suslov, an ideologist of the CPSU and one of the main grave diggers of the Soviet Union (although he, of course, considered himself a true Leninist) was born in no century from Ukraine or Russian South, but from these parts. His working youth was connected with the Syzran station, and allegedly, passing somehow along the Volga and noting that since that time the city has not changed much, he ordered a new face to be made to it.In fact, I think everything is simpler - the poor private sector right under the main street asked to be built up, and hardly anyone thought about the panoramas from the river at that time.
In general, despite the scale, worthy of a small regional center, Syzran still retained much of the county. Outside of Sovetskaya Street, where, after the terrible fire of 1906, it was ordered to be built in stone, lies mainly a wooden city. Moreover, the envy of even provincial Samara is indeed very beautiful:
For example, the house of Kulakov on Marks Street, but next to the house of Sterlyadkin:
And this was the last frame from the areas between Sovetskaya Street and Volga - before the revolution there were flood meadows, berths, mills and dilapidated slums of the port Saryni, which the Volga robbers in older times advised to retreat to. More prosperous, merchant and petty-bourgeois, neighborhoods grew from Bolshaya Street to Krymze, and the Syzran teremki is the most crowded on Ulyanovskaya Street:
Among them is a fire tower of the early Soviet type:
And the abandoned decapitated Holy Cross Church (1907), which belonged to the Old Believers before the revolution.
Unfortunately, there is a lot of such in Syzran - in the last part I showed the church of the faith of God in a similar state, but Krymzoy can see the St. Nicholas Church (1912) of the “besopovskikh” Old Believers of the Pomerants. Old Believers in the trade Syzran obviously played a very prominent role, but in general in the middle of the multinational Volga region it was almost the most Russian city - suffice it to say that even a synagogue was in pre-revolutionary Syzran (and its building survived at Kirov, 10, but I don’t reached), but the mosque here is a small and poor Tatar community then could not build.
Ulyanovskaya Street leads to the Ilyinsky Bridge over the Krymsu River, thrown almost across the mouth. The Syzran Kremlin, already familiar to us, stands on the arrow, the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin (1717), the Spasskaya Tower (1683) and the Kazan Cathedral of the second half of the 19th century, which is already outside the Kremlin, behind a huge market, dominating the center, from right to left. Behind the Kremlin cape there will be one more bridge and another mouth - the Syzran-river flows there into the Volga:
View from the bridge to the other side. On the huge Volga and the deep Syzranka, the locals preferred to work, but on the little Krymsee - to live: the historical center was spread along both its banks.
Above the river is clearly visible the house of Martinian Chernukhin (1910), the official monument number 1 in the wooden architecture of Syzran. It has even been restored to its brilliance and is occupied by the exhibition hall, but I’ve already stupidly lacked the strength to come closer:
Behind Ilinsky bridge meets the suburb of Zakrymz, and like a gate on opposite sides of the central Internatsionalnaya street there is a white Ilinsky church (1776):
And the red flowering mill of this kind, as if it were not long to stand:
And although the terrible fire of 1906 came to Syzran just from Zakrymzy, the suburb rebuilt quickly and most importantly - about the same as it was. There are few outstanding buildings here, but much better than in the center, the living fabric of a single-storey county town has survived:
There are also quite nice houses in Zakormze:
Including modern ones - the tradition of Russian wooden carving is still alive:
Among the patriarchal landscapes, where any tragical Chekhov character tragic in his ignorance asks, the lonely Hermitage is the Belovykh's stone mansion:
With rather strange micro-caryatids in the form of coats of arms:
On the edge of the Vescumzy - Ascension Monastery, in the landscape of Syzran bay beautifully echoing the Kremlin.Founded in 1684, it was worth growing up in the suburb at the Syzran fortress, in 1687-91 he moved for a while to neighboring Kashpir (there is now the village of Novokashpirsky, where since 1919 oil shale has been mined) mill farm in the county. And apparently, therefore, in their diocese, the Ascension Monastery had a very specific reputation in those years: a dead drunk monk in the backyard of a tavern who walked out of his dress in the same place, a mass brawl involving a fraternity or a monk, at the last moment extracted by the igumen from a loop, were completely in Syzran district familiar plots. Even those sent to the procession to atone for the past booze, the local inhabitants returned, sometimes with a bit of fun and without icons. Those who took vows for the sake of sincere service to God, of course, knew about it and therefore kept away from the Syzran monastery as fire, so that the worst of the worst came to those people at that time — for example, those who were dismissed from the seminaries. And the money from the mills was falling, and the combination of wealth and idleness, coupled with the proximity of the riotous port city, certainly did not contribute to the spiritual transformation of the people who fell into these walls.The most adequate person of the Ascension Monastery has traditionally been the abbot, who by status was supposed to lead a huge monastic economy, but to see the charges, see, he simply did not have time, and those who wanted to accept reprisals from their hands and become a torturer for believing in the diocese was not. All this affected the appearance of the monastery: for example, in 1869 the unfinished bell tower fell here, destroying the older residential building at the same time. At the sight of two monastic churches - the stocky Fedorovskaya (1740) and the high Voznesenskaya (1852) - the idea arises that these are remnants of the ensemble that was broken during the Soviets, but no - almost the same monastery was before the revolution. From a distance, it rather well revives the Syzran landscape, but close, frankly, is not impressive:
And in principle, the main attraction of this area is the views of the center through Syzranka, with the construction of the Saratov hydroelectric station in Balakovo, which turned into a spacious bay. I took part of these species directly from the shore at the monastery, and some from the hills in a steep riverine bend, but here I show them interspersed:
Closure from here is visible only a little, and the Elias Church is visible in the empty windows of the mill.The background is no less interesting here - although the population of Syzran in the post-Soviet years has been steadily declining, it is being built regularly, and the “candles” in it grow no worse than in other regional centers:
The wooden facade of Ulyanovskaya Street, a tower tower, a high pipe of a city bath and a tower of a distant elevator on the Volga. What invariably amazes me in the panoramas of Russian cities is the high-rise buildings that invariably appear when viewed from afar where they have not even noticed near them. That is naturally - that microdistrict stands approximately where we walked in the last part, admiring the masterpieces of modernity:
The center of Syzran with the turrets of the merchant's shops on Sovetskaya and high yars higher up the Volga. The river here is bent with the letter "C", Syzran is stretched along it for a good 30 kilometers (and if with Oktyabrsky - even for all 50), and here in the background - not even the farthest from its outskirts:
I showed the Kremlin close-ups in the title frame of the last part, and this angle opens from the Syzranku bridge - the huge Kazan Cathedral turns out to be between the Kremlin’s miniature buildings on its background. But both ensembles on different shores - in one frame.The wealth of the Ascension Monastery is quite a thing of the past, and now it is very slowly selected from the industrial zone - but without the bad glory that went about it in the 19th century:
Railway bridge leading directly to Syzran-City, and Zasyzran boat marinas. This is not a typo - the name of the river before the revolution was written with a firm sign, and if the city became Syzrany even then (at least on postcards its name is leaning in a modern way), then the river "changed its sex" only under the Soviets, but about the suburb just forgot.
Syzran mouth with someone's dachas on the spit - now that the Volga is regulated by a lot of hydroelectric power stations, the owners of these houses may not be afraid of floods. I bite my elbows - the last few years around Samarskaya Luka cruised the "Meteor" Syzran - Togliatti, which actually provided the connection of both cities with Samara. At least, his shoulder in Syzran was in demand - only 2 hours of travel versus 3 hours by train and quite inadequate 5 hours on buses, and also with the breeze and beautiful views. Well, for the traveler it was a unique opportunity to see the Zhiguli Mountains from the water, the most beautiful place on the Volga, without giving more than a hundred thousand rubles for a cruise from Moscow.But this year there will be no navigation, because the main problem of domestic officials is not sawing and kickbacks, but “as if something did not work out” - local people said that they never liked those responsible for safety on the river, and this spring they found reason to not give him permission:
Behind the boat bay - some picturesque ruins on a wooded cape, maybe an unfinished hotel? The Mongora (Monastery Mountain, i.e.) suburb, and continuing it, is not very historical, with no churches, mansions or windmills, and the maximum that can be found there from antiquity is a certain amount of carved huts.
Moreover, the most interesting thing in Zasyzran is not the residential part, but the Syzranskaya Luka, which is almost not built up. This is the same Samarskaya Luka in miniature - the river here makes an almost vicious circle, turns (this is not hyperbole!) 180 degrees, and the isthmus at the beginning of the bend looks naturally "vice versa" - you stand between two banks, but not in the water and not on the island, but on the “solid” land itself:
In principle, I have already seen such places in Kamenets-Podolsky and Kashin, but in Syzran, unlike them, neither a fortress nor a cathedral were erected on this bend.Until the beginning of the twentieth century, it remained uninhabited, and perhaps rare old dachas are sometimes found in its wilds, and cars with a full family of saloon and barbecue in the trunk scurry along primers, like somewhere in the Crimea:
And if from the lower side of the Syzranka bend is a completely normal river, then from the upper side lies the Gett - as the locals call the overgrown reservoir, and a strange word - of course, the simplified “hydroelectric station”. This bend is the birthplace of the grand Volga-Kama cascade of hydropower stations, or rather its first sprout: the Soviets had big plans for the industrialization of Syzran, but unlike Samara, it didn’t have time to get its power plant before the revolution. It was here that GOELRO engineers liked Syzranskaya Luka:
Built in 1925-39, the Syzran hydroelectric station became the second in the USSR after the Volkhovskaya. It was completely crushed in modern times by the construction site, it was quite a shock-Komsomol itself - all this was erected by manual labor, and it was under the hostel for the builders that the Soviets remade the Ascension Monastery. The concrete dam at the end of the “upper” side of the bend is quite adult for its scales - 212 meters in length (another 114 is the earthen part), 21 meters in height, and the water in the spring is gushing from it effectively:
In architectural terms, the Syzran Hydroelectric Station is exceptionally stylish - it is “pure” constructivism, and by the beginning of the era of the Big Hydrostroi it emerged from trends.
The dacha village stands under the dam, and it takes about 20 minutes to walk from the beginning of the bend. The road runs along Geta, and halfway across the bridge crosses a small canal, where water tends like a funnel:
He dives under the fence through which such views open:
The channel crosses the Syzran Luka from edge to edge, and on its lower side, under the steep bank, there is, in fact, the machine room of the Syzran Hydroelectric Station. It is well seen from the bridge over Syzranka at the Ascension Monastery:
But I wanted to take a closer look at the hydroelectric power station, and for a long time I was looking for a view of it through the wilds, and even accidentally wandered through the bushes to someone’s site, aroused a pack of dogs there. As a result, I found a road that was steep serpentine, like somewhere on the Central Asian passes, went down past the dachas to the Syzrankia coast and almost led to the high transparent gates along the water's edge. Inside, the Syzran Hydroelectric Station is at least as interesting as the outside - in the constructivist interiors of its engine rooms and control cabins, everything has been preserved since the 1920s - cranes, pipes, consoles, with the logos of the Stalingrad Barricades, then the Leningrad Electrosili. .Sometimes there are bloggers at the Syzran Hydroelectric Power Plant, and probably if I set myself the goal, I could also get there, but after my entire “space” epic in February-March, the last thing I wanted to do was negotiate with some departments about the tour. In addition, two days earlier I had seen an even older hydroelectric station in the Ural Thresholds in the company
Basically, Syzran looks like this - a boundless blob of the private sector on gullets and hills, and a refinery fuming away (1938-43). For its scale, Syzran is very low-rise:
In 2002–09, a trolley bus was built around the city, built with the money of the well-known Yukos, which then owned a refinery. Nowadays Syzran transport is almost exclusively a minibus, and the whole herds of orange "Gazelles" on Sovetskaya Street were remembered by me in the dawn Syzran even in the last visit. Travel here is cheaper than in Samara, but more expensive than in Saratov, and payment, unlike the regional center, was taken at the exit, and when I thought out, I left without paying, the driver did not yell at me in a wild voice, but simply did not notice. But there is a direct flight to Shanghai:
And in the open spaces of the city, there are probably other noteworthy places, but ... you haven’t forgotten that this spring, my focus is on Cosmos? Samara diligently aspires to the title of “space capital” in Russia, but there is something in Syzran. Therefore nowback to Syzran-1 (not Syzran-City!)yes, we’ll come out not to the station square, but by the elegant old viaductfor the railway. There - the area of the private sector, rotten wooden slums, their neglect similar to the overgrown forest:
Near the railway there are narrow, crooked streets and even closer crooked houses, obviously built in tsarist times for railway workers. As the distance from the station increases, the street grid straightens ...
... and to replace the slums come Khrushchev, among whom I went into a cozy square with the stele "Peace-Peace" (1975) and the mysterious fighting machine, as if drunk drove onto a lawn. I don’t know what kind of apparatus it is, and I didn’t find any information about it, but at least the asphalt paver is not a monument in the background, but was repairing the road.
The square rests on the Avangard Palace of Culture (1958), in front of which façade begins: a huge factory evacuated in 1941 from Kaluga Lyudinov, where in his past life he was the flagship of domestic metallurgy with the first open-hearth furnaces in the Russian Empire.In the first summer of the war, he was brought here on 38 trains, and apparently did not dare to carry multi-ton and oversized equipment to Kuibyshev through the Syzran Bridge. At the new site, the plant immediately began to rivet defense products, such as sea-mine corps, and perhaps tankettes like the one in the square behind Avangard. Mainly women and teenagers worked here then, and after the war the newly minted industrial giant had to somehow return to peaceful life. Locomobiles became the first civilian product of the Syzran "Tyazhmash", but the plant soon switched to the production of such machines, which would require transporting at least an entire car, or even a train or a vessel — primarily hydro turbines for the HPPs of the Volga-Kama cascade under construction, the first the party which in the 1950s went to Perm. The turning point for the plant was the years 1958-62, when it was headed by Maxim Saburov, whose name now bears the area between the entrance hall and the Palace of Culture. Saburov did a lot for Syzran as a whole, built the Avangard DC and a number of residential districts throughout the city ...
... but most importantly - under his leadership, "Tyazhmash" entered the space project.After all, astronautics is not only rockets, satellites, spacecraft and spacesuits, and I now know that kerosene is made for rockets in Bashkir Salavat, and power for astronauts is in Biryulyovo ... Tyazhmash’s most unusual specialization is launch complexes for cosmodromes, that is, those huge structures, from the embraces of which a rocket in clouds of smoke and flame soars into the skies. As I understand it, the launch pad for the First satellite was made somewhere else, but the Gagarin rocket broke away from the Earth precisely on the "Tyazhmashevsky" product. The latest large orders are still a complex for Soyuz rockets at the Kourou cosmodrome in French Guiana (2008) and equipment for the Vostochny cosmodrome (2016). The corps of radio telescopes and even some nodes of heavy and superheavy rockets like the Proton (see here), the Energia (see here) or the H1 that did not fly to the Moon can also make here. The creators of these missiles were rivals among themselves, but all of them equally could not do without the "Tazhmashevsky" products.
Despite the gloomy view of the Saburov square, the plant itself is working properly, and on its website it has a very beautiful section with a history.Before the plant, there was some kind of action, most of all similar to the shooting of a clip or commercial:
Tyazhmash goes somewhere to infinity, in both directions from Saburov Square in a straight Hydroturbine Street:
In its diameter, the site is more than 2 kilometers, and it is not the pipes that dominate it, but the workshops themselves. In the highest building, the final assembly of launch complexes could pass (although they would still be taken to parts at the cosmodrome), but the launch complex is a rare product and not a serial one, but hydro turbines, industrial mills for mining and processing plants, bridge cranes, country boring shields or conveyor belts are always needed. And not only ours - among the customers of Tyazhmash there were companies from India, Brazil and even from Germany once. And at the foot of the giant - stalls, minibuses, market, vanity ...
At the end of the story about Syzran - a few shots from the train window. The road to Samara goes along the very bank of the Volga, and along it -Oktyabrsk, a very strange city, in which there are 25 kilometers of length, 25 thousand inhabitants and no special sights on this whole huge length. It grew out of several villages that stood on this shore since the time of Peter the Great, and the most important of them was the village of Batraki (known since 1706), serving the crossing of the Volga.In 1942, the villages became part of Syzran as its Oktyabrsky district, and in 1956 they separated into a separate city of Oktyabrsk - because with them Syzran was simply exorbitantly long. The current Oktyabrsk, a couple of blocks wide, is a kind of lining between the railway and the river, an adapter of two transport arteries.
There are some unpretentious stalinki and wooden railroad houses, but I only filmed "howling" lurking over the road:
Much more interesting are the Volga species themselves. The trains and ships here are suitable for almost the same platforms, and in the background you can see Syzran with its elevators, mills, factories pipes and the bell tower of the Kazan Cathedral barely noticeable in all this industrial abundance.
On the Volga, the movement is slightly less active than on the railway:
And I do not remember how many times I drove here at least in daylight. By bus to Tolyatti in 2008 and by train to Orenburg at the same time, to Chelyabinsk in 2009, twice to Kazakhstan in 2012 and again in 2013, and in 2015 from Kazakhstan, and finally less than a month back - by train from Chapaevsk to Syzran. And each time, passing this way, I am waiting for the same place - Syzran bridge. Or rather, he was officially Aleksandrovsky, but I only ever heard such a name from local historians.The railway reached Samara in 1877, but for the first three years the trains had to cross the ferry. The bridge was opened in 1880, and at that time was considered the longest in Europe ... in fact, however, it was an accident - the longer bridge was somewhere in England, but it collapsed shortly before the opening of the Alexander Bridge and restored was a little later. However, the championship in continental Europe was indisputable - 1436 meters and 13 spans, incredible for those years. And it feels like it is about three kilometers: as you drive along this bridge, you have time to get used to the expanse of water. And although I crossed the Volga in many other places, nowhere moving through it is not so impressive ...
And there are very few to the endless stinky industrial zones of Chapaev and Novokuybyshevsk, to the picturesque Samara bays in their industrialism and finally to the brilliant blue glass of the station. From the launch complexes we turn to rockets - the next dozen posts will be about Samara.
Overview of the trip and the table of contents of the series.
My space program. Context.
Gagarin field and Flight town (Engels).
Saratov. Moscow street.
Saratov. Embankment and street Rakhova.
Saratov. Houses and streets.
Saratov. Falcon Mountain.
Saratov. Western districts.
South area. Krasnoarmeysk.
South area. Ust-Zolikh, Kamenka, Golden.
Sizran. Soviet street.
Sizran. All the rest.
Samara (2017). Views from the Volga.
Samara. The coloring of the Old City.
Samara. Reserve capital.
Samara. Yards of the Old City.
Samara. From Hlebnaya Square to Revolution Square.
Samara. From the Revolution Square to the Kuibyshev Square.
Samara. From Kubyyshev Square to Glory Square.
Samara. North of the city.
Samara. Yungorodok and Managerial.
Samara (2017). Samara Metro.