Salt revolt: reasons, essence, results
Reasons for riot
Historians call several reasons at once, owing to which the Salt Riot of 1648 began. Firstly, this is discontent with the policy pursued by the then government, which was directed mainly at the boyar Morozov, who has a great influence on the king, who is also his tutor, and then svayakom. Thoughtlessness in government, increasing corruption every day, as well as a difficult economic and social condition led to an unbearable tax increase. Morozov, feeling the growing discontent, decided to replace the direct charges that were charged directly to the indirect ones - included in the price of the goods. And to compensate for the losses from the reduction of direct tax, the prices of the most requested goods from the population, for example, salt, the price of which increased from five kopecks to twenty, were significantly increased. Salt, because of which, in fact, arose the Salt Riot, in Russia has long been considered one of the vital products.It was she who ensured the safety of food at that time for a long time, thus helping to save money and overcome lean years. Due to the increase in the price of salt, the poorest segment of the people — the peasants — were in a very grave condition, and along with them the interests of the merchants were also infringed, since the costs and the price of goods rose, and demand fell. Trying to somehow mitigate popular discontent, Morozov, a year before the Salt Riot, decided to abolish the tax on this particular food product, changing the indirect collection to direct. Another reason was the restriction of trade for many institutions, as well as delayed bureaucratic salary.
Chronology of the riot
The salt rebellion began on the first of June 1648, after an unsuccessful delegation to the king to hand over to him. On that day, Alexei Mikhailovich was returning to the capital from Trinity-Sergiev and was met at Sretenka by a crowd of Muscovites. However, Morozov ordered the archers to disperse the people. But the townspeople were no longer reassured: the next day they repeated the attempt to transfer the petition already in the Kremlin, but the boyars tore up the document and threw it into the crowd.The cup of patience overflowed, and the Salt Riot began, the reasons for which were in increasing tax oppression. Riots began in the city: China and the White City blazed in flames, furious citizens were running through the streets, looking for Morozov, as well as the initiator of the “salt collection” Clean and the head of the Zemstvo order who were hiding in the Kremlin. The crowd trashed all around, killing the "traitors." On the same day, a significant part of the archers went over to the side of the strikers. The rebels broke into the Kremlin, demanding to give them the culprits of the "salt tax". Pure was killed, and the king issued the chief of the Zemsky order to the crowd, which tore him to pieces. Boyar Morozov sovereign removed from power and ten days later sent into exile in the monastery. Representatives of the nobility who did not take part in the uprising, took advantage of the movement that the Salt Riot created in the people, demanded the convocation of the Zemsky Sobor. The unrest spread to Kursk, Kozlov, Solvychegodsk, etc. They continued until February of the following year.
The king had to make concessions. The salt rebellion was not in vain. The exorbitant collection of arrears was canceled, moreover, the Council was convened to adopt the new Code.For the first time in many years, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich had to solve political problems himself. The decree on deferment of arrears calmed the ranks of the rebellious. Sagittarius was given a double salary and bread rations. Thus, the king made a split in the ranks of the rebels. Subsequently, the most active participants and those who led the Salt Riot were repressed and executed.