Political fragmentation of Russia: preconditions, consequences
In the twelfth century the collapse of Kievan Ruson independent, independent of each other princedoms, however formally a single state still existed up to the period of the Tatar-Mongol invasion. Time from 12th to 16th centuries is considered to be a period of political fragmentation (feudal) of Russia.
Political fragmentation of Russia: the prerequisites
Among modern historians are still being conducteddebate about what has become the true reason for the separation of a single strong state into several smaller and disparate ones. It is believed that the primary role in the historical process was played by the appearance of local boyars. The princes, ruling with separate Russian lands, did not want to share their income with the Prince of Kiev, the local boyars, stronger power was needed on the ground than ever, so it actively supported their position.
In addition, at the turn of 11-12 centuriesThe system of production of consumer goods, the structural unit of which is a separate patrimony. Over time, such patrimonies, available in different parts of the country, begin to produce products only for own consumption, but not for sale. As a result, commodity exchange between the lands of a single state practically ceases. Each territory under the control of an individual prince becomes completely autonomous and has the possibility of a prosperous existence without the support of neighboring lands.
A sedentary lifestyle, the development of plowedagriculture led to an increase in the power of the vigilantes on the ground. Gradually, the vigilantes are turning into landowners who are interested in making their possessions completely independent of state laws. In connection with this, a system of so-called immunities is developing, according to which the boyar landowners received complete independence from the Grand Duke, became full owners of their possessions, and had the right to establish certain laws on their territory. Hence the conclusion suggests that the political fragmentation of Rus was the result of the development of private landownership and the transition of the vigilantes to a settled way of life. By the middle of the 12th century, on the basis of a few decades ago, there were about fifteen independent princedoms. The number of independent lands from Kiev grows with great speed and by the 14th century it has reached two hundred and fifty. The largest state formations of this period of time are the Novgorod Republic, Galicia-Volyn, Vladimir-Suzdal Principalities. Each such principality is completely independent and independent of others, has its own monetary unit, a separate army, etc. Relations between the heads of all lands are regulated on the basis of agreements and traditions. Intestine wars, if they are, are very rare, at the heart of them - the desire to expand their lands at the expense of the territories of the neighboring principality.
Political fragmentation of Russia: consequences
The main consequences of the political fragmentation of Kievan Rus were:
- the development of new lands for growing grain, the development of peasant farming;
- the strengthening of the authority of the church, its influence on the cultural life of the country;
- the folding of a clear system of the feudal hierarchy.
Development of agriculture, rapid growthcities, the emergence of individual Russian principalities on the foreign policy arena, the development of architecture, chronicle - such are the consequences of feudal disunity in Russia. In addition, the full political collapse of the state did not take place. The power of the Kiev princes existed always, albeit very ghostly. The Orthodox faith throughout the period of fragmentation united the people of all Russian principalities, the leadership of the entire church organization was in the hands of the Metropolitan of Kiev. Before the external danger, the Prince of Kiev acted as a single defender of the Russian state. The political fragmentation of Russia has become an important stage in the development of the state on the way to its future centralization, political and economic upsurge.