Pechora (river): description, photo
feed several large and powerful rivers. But in terms of their potential, none of them can compete with the main waterway - Pechora, which annually delivers about 130 cubic meters. km of fresh water. Yes, in comparison with the same Volga, the indicator is not a record one. However, if we take the total resource of the Don and the Dnieper as a reference point, then the Pechora is a record-breaker river, because its capabilities are 1.6 times higher than the annual flow of the above-mentioned waterways. In many ways, precisely because of the latter fact, “Blue Nile”, spread to the northeast of the European part of the Russian Federation, gained a reputation as a strait and fish-rich watercourse. And the river basin is really huge. The order of numbers just fascinates - about 35 thousand rivers and streams and at least 61 thousand lakes.
Pechora is characterized by a mixed diet with a pronounced dominance of the snow mechanism filling the pool (the melt water of mountain caps and glaciers). The flood period occurs in April - May: in the first decade of the second month of spring, the river overflows in the middle course, in the lower reaches, this process develops after 3-4 weeks and lasts until the tenth of June.
Seasonal lowering of the water level is observed in summer and winter. In the hot season, low water covers a period from the end of July to August, but frequent heavy rains affect the situation, and the water in Pechora periodically rises. A steady ice cover, as a rule, is formed in the twentieth of October (we are talking about the upper course of the bed) and is accompanied by the formation of congestion.
Due to the difficult climatic conditions and total off-road, the territory designated as the Pechora River Basin, in fact, is a poorly understood region. At least, the influence of man on the local nature is minimized. On both sides of the riverbed lie pristine taiga lands, from time to time alternating with sections of tundra and mountain ranges.
The length of the Pechora River is 1809 km, the area of the mirror is more than 322 thousand square meters. kilometers It takes its beginning in the Northern Urals and, winding, goes at first mainly to the south-west. All the way from the source to the confluence of the tributary called Unya river is restless (there is a mountain current). But in the village of Yakshi, the river bed goes north, towards the Pechora lowland, and passing the mouth of the Mustache, it smoothly rushes to the west and divides.A wide knee and two long bends play the role of a “shock absorber”, as a result of which the flow velocity slows down.
Tributaries of the river and their features
The overwhelming majority of the right tributaries of the Pechora are born in the Ural Mountains and can boast a severe burrow.
Among them, Usa is a river stretching for five thousand kilometers and intensively feeding the Komi-Nenets Blue Nile. Ilych and Shchugor also belong to the “right-handers”, but they are much calmer. For family descent in kayak is the perfect option.
The inclination of the Pechora River in the Yaksha village - the Ilycha estuary varies within 2.5-3 meters per kilometer of the channel, but downstream this indicator does not exceed 0.1-0.2 m / km. This explains the long-term floods - frequent "guests" of the lower reaches.
The left tributaries of the Pechora are mainly fed by the sources of the Timan Ridge and the Lemune Upland. Exception - Unya. She, like Pechora itself, is a river born by the Ural mountain range.
The fall of the Pechora River: topographic nuances of the area
The Pechora is a river in three “faces”. Its starting point is a modest spring located on Mount Pecher-Ya-Taliakh-Syakhl at an altitude of 676 meters above sea level.Directly near the reservoir a granite slab was installed not so long ago, on which the “passport details” of the water line were imprinted. Upper Pechora - the personification of the unbridled power of mountain streams. Cold waters seem to crash into the rock, and the roar in the surrounding area can be heard for several kilometers in clear weather. But as soon as the river reaches Vuktyl, the “swollen artery” of the Barents Sea is transformed - it calms down and calms down. Since the inclination of the Pechora River gradually decreases throughout the entire length, there is not even a hint of the mountainous origin of the “recalcitrant blue Nile” in the lower reaches.
Beauty Top Pechora
The source of the Pechora River is hidden from prying eyes by inaccessible rocks. Only dwarf birches and the omnipresent moss are able to climb so high. Here the atmosphere of mystery reigns everywhere, the presence of eternal spirits of mountains is felt ...
The peak next to Pecher-Ya-Taliah-Syakhl is a sacred place for Mansi. Here are the remains of Manpupunyur. But it is necessary to translate the gaze to the south-west - and the fog of anxiety will dissipate: the green waves of the mountains of the Silver Belt will seem so familiar, so familiar ...
In the upper reaches of the Pechora River so much that frosty ice streams rush past the boring lonely fir and spruce at incredible speed. Sometimes massive rapids from overwhelming boulders block the way to water - in such places “milk whirlpools” alternate with shallow rifts, which is fraught with trouble for lovers of extreme boat descent.
Infinite Zigzags of the Middle Pechora
The underside is a kind of Rubicon: a place where the conditional border between the Upper and Middle Pechora passes. However, in informal circles, a somewhat different “administrative division” of the channel was taken as the basis. In particular, the river crew, forming the schedule of vessels on the Upper Pechora, are repelled not from Podcherye, but from Vuktyl.
The coastline here is no longer the one that was upstream: it is still high (up to 45 m), but less steep (to climb with equipment is quite realistic). But there are almost no differences in the landscape - all the same spruce and fir, and only in some places deciduous trees gleam.
The left tributary of the Voya cuts into the channel at an acute angle, and the Pechora itself, like a giant boa, wriggles around the local spurs many times.Often its loops stretch for several kilometers, but sometimes the turning radius is reduced to a couple of hundred meters - and then the native banks of a powerful and strong river spread out on both sides of the ring are visible on the palm of your hand. And the ghostly mountain villages, complementing the landscape, only enhance the effect of the “time machine”.
Lower Pechora: Welcome to the Nenets Autonomous Area
Pechora (the mouth of the river is high in the mountains), having reached the Nenets Autonomous District, seeks to get rid of the status of an indomitable stream. She tries to disguise herself under the usual flat river, flowing through this Edem herself. Here, in the lower reaches, a completely different picture appears before the gaze of the wanderer: gray spruces recede beyond the horizon, and the coast is sheltered by colors never seen before - these are flowers and shrubs competing with lichens and mosses in which of them is brighter and more visible.
Not only the flora comes to life downstream - the fauna also wakes up. Pechora is a river that has become home to dozens of bird species. Particularly distinguished are feathery, winding nests directly near the water: their ringing trills, spreading around the district, set up a positive and give a sense of natural euphoria.
Fur animals are well represented in the lower reaches of the river, so wolverines and ermines are not uncommon here.If you're lucky, you can see a cautious fox. The large animals of Lower Pechora are mostly moose and bears.
From the history of shipping
Due to the fact that the height of the source of the Pechora River is 676 m, and the channel slope is permanent, it has not been possible to establish efficient shipping for a long time.
Only in 1927 did the first hydrotechnical work take place, aimed at straightening a five-kilometer ring (district of the village of Mamyl). In the segment most suitable for shipping, the right bank of the Pechora is absolutely inaccessible, while the left, on the contrary, is low and covered with boulders. However, the bottom relief and channel geometry is not the main difficulty. The weather is a factor that cannot be affected either by the construction of the canal or the improvement of the propellers.
The northern climate is so harsh that even under favorable conditions, large vessels had to set record speeds along the river in order not to fall into the off-season trap. For the same reason, the duration of navigation in the middle of the last century did not exceed 110-115 days a year, and the main “profile” of the river was not transportation at all, but timber rafting.
Pechora - the river of today
The height of its source is 676 meters above sea level. The height of the mouth of the Pechora River (Pechora Bay) is 0 meters. After a simple mathematical calculations, you can determine that the total height of the fall of the channel is 676 meters. For a stream length of 1809 km - not so much. But given the geographical and geological specifics of the area - not so little in order to significantly complicate the lives of pilots and captains of river ships.
Modern shipping on the Pechora River is developing mainly due to the open gas and oil fields. The first successful drilling in this region took place almost 35 years ago. Over the years, the working village has grown to the size of a county town; along the way, several channels were dug to optimize the channel. Currently, the duration of navigation varies from 165-190 days. In addition to the transport function, Pechora is assigned the role of a reliable supplier of fish products (pike, dace, salmon, whitefish); The territory of its catchment basin includes one and a half hundred reserves and a huge national park.
Perhaps the main cultural heritage of the region is in the Pechora-Ilych Biosphere Reserve.