What does baby allergy look like? Symptoms and treatment of allergies in infants
One of the most common problems that mothers of babies face is allergy. The immune system of a newly born child does not always cope with the surrounding stimuli. And as a result, parents hear from doctors that their crumbs are allergic.
Signs of problems
Young mothers can not always independently understand that a child has an allergy. A small peeling of the skin or its redness, they are rarely taken seriously. But when the cheeks of the crumbs become crusted, then anxiety begins. In order not to allow the disease to develop rapidly, it is important to find out in time how allergies are manifested in infants.
Every mother should know the signs, when they appear, it is necessary to contact at least a pediatrician. These include the following:
- peeling of the skin, as a rule, it begins on the cheeks;
- persistent redness and rash on different parts of the body;
- diaper rash that does not decrease even with careful care and the use of special tools;
- the appearance of prickly heat, even in cases where the baby does not particularly overheat;
- peeling of all hairy parts of the body, which in babies include eyebrows and head.
But in addition to the symptoms described above, an allergy in infants can cause a runny nose or even bronchospasm, in which air hardly begins to enter the respiratory tract. Any digestive disorders, ranging from colic and flatulence and ending with a foamy green stool, should also alert. Often signs of problems are obsessive hiccups, excessive regurgitation, bloating, and constipation.
If you have the slightest problem, you should not run to the pharmacy for antihistamines. Most of them are simply not suitable for young children, and they do not solve the problem. Such funds can only remove the external manifestations, and then only for a short time, and the allergy in the infant will remain.
Therefore, it is important as soon as possible to see a specialist.You can start with a pediatrician, but it would be more correct to make an appointment with an allergist and in parallel with a nutritionist, an immunologist. An integrated approach will help not only to identify the problem and try to get rid of it, but also to prevent the development of the disease in the future. The main task is to determine the causes of allergies and, if possible, the maximum elimination of irritants that cause it.
It is cheaper and easiest to find out what causes the reaction in the crumbs, with the help of mom's food diary, if the baby is exclusively breastfed, or watching the baby’s diet, if he is already given complementary foods. But if it is not possible to establish an exact dependence, then it is worth passing special tests for immunoglobulins. They help identify allergies to milk components, cereals, and other potential irritants. But you can start the examination with the usual coprogram, which helps to understand how the intestines, abdominal ultrasound and blood test for immunoglobulin E work.
Immediately it is worth noting that to find out how allergy manifests itself in infants, first of all should parents, who themselves suffer from similar problems.A kid from healthy parents is at low risk of developing this disease, although among such children more than 10% of allergy sufferers. If mom or dad suffer from such problems, then the probability that the baby will inherit them comes to 40%. The most at risk of developing the disease are those children who have both parents - allergies. Such babies can suffer from similar problems. The probability of developing allergies in them reaches 80%.
Particularly attentive to their crumbs should be those parents whose children suffered from intrauterine hypoxia or experienced a lack of oxygen during childbirth. At risk are also those who have suffered any viral, including acute respiratory, diseases in the first months after birth. They significantly violate the intestinal microflora, thereby contributing to the development of the disease.
Causes of Allergies
The main task of specialists (in collaboration with parents) is to identify what triggered the emergence of an organism’s response. It is worth noting that proteins are most often allergens. But carbohydrates and fats in this regard are considered much safer.Having discovered an unfamiliar product in the body, the baby’s immunity begins to produce antibodies to it. At the same time, he perceives an irritating food component as hostile and begins to fight it.
Every mother must be careful, because an allergy in infants can develop even to the products that she consumes. It is important to take special care in the first months of life. It is desirable to expand the diet gradually, watching the reaction of the crumbs to innovations. But do not think that transferring the baby to the mixture will make life easier for the mother. An allergy to an artificial breast milk substitute is not at all uncommon. Also, problems in babies can occur with the introduction of complementary foods. Be careful with him. It is better to coordinate the order of introduction of products and portions of reception with the pediatrician.
But, unfortunately, food allergy in infants is not the only possible problem. Some babies from birth react to pet hair, flowering of certain plants, dust, hygiene products and other irritants.
To take care of the crumbs you need to start from the moment you decide to get pregnant.Only the correct preparation for conception, the rejection of harmful products and habits during the carrying of the baby will help to set up the correct operation of his immune system. So, it is better for mother to refuse from various semi-finished products, smoked meats, carbonated drinks, chips, crackers and other products that contain chemical additives and carcinogens. It would be more correct to focus on fruits, vegetables, cereals, lean meat and fish.
It is also important to know that during pregnancy you should not lean on products that do not grow in the region of your residence, or on those that you did not use before pregnancy. So, starting to eat oranges during pregnancy, you risk that your baby will develop an allergy to citrus fruits. Do not even drink milk at the insistence of grandmothers, if you do not want it
If you don’t want to see on your baby what an allergy looks like in babies, then it’s important to observe these rules not only during pregnancy, but also after the birth of a baby.
It is important to feed the newborn in the first hours after his birth. It's okay if you have not yet arrived milk. It is in the colostrum, which is formed in the breast during pregnancy and in the first days after the birth of the crumbs, the necessary bacteria are contained.They are settled in the untouched intestine and contribute to the normal functioning of the baby’s digestive system in the future.
It is also necessary to carefully approach the process of feeding the baby. Do not forget that currently pediatricians are not advised to use the recommendations that were popular in the middle of the last century. If then they advised to inject juices, egg yolk, liquid milk porridges and other products almost from one month, it is now established that such an early supplement disrupts the work of the digestive tract and is a trigger mechanism, which causes an allergy in infants to appear quite early. . Moreover, it is poorly treatable.
Process of occurrence
To understand why there is an allergy in infants on the face, you need to find out how this disease develops. So the body sometimes begins to react to the ingestion of any products. Such substances are called allergens. It is worth considering that some of them after heat treatment the body ceases to be perceived as hostile. The most common cause of the reaction are eggs and various dairy products.
The body recognizes allergens as hostile, alien objects. And in response, he begins to produce immunoglobulin E. It is he who triggers an allergic reaction. What exactly it will be and when it comes, it is impossible to predict in advance. Of course, in most cases, allergy in infants develops very quickly. Just a couple of hours after the irritant enters the body, the reaction begins. By the way, this is one of the reasons why you should not give new products to babies in the afternoon. But in some cases, the reaction may appear much later. Also, it often occurs only when the allergen enters the body again.
Ignore the symptoms that appear. Consider, it is not enough to give the child an antihistamine, and not to take any more action. It is impossible to underestimate the seriousness of allergies. It is necessary to find out the irritant and try to eliminate it.
All experts say that breastfeeding is the most complete and safe. But at the same time, we should not forget that in this case, the mother should monitor her diet.But this does not mean that she is obliged to abandon all products that may be potential allergens. You just need to know the symptoms of allergies in infants and remember that you ate in the last two days. If it seems to you that you can forget about a new product, then you can keep a food diary in the first months of your life. In order to save time, it is possible to record not everything that you have eaten into it, but only new components of your menu.
When feeding, emphasis should be placed on fermented milk products, various cereals, green and white vegetables, fruits of the same colors, low-fat varieties of fish and meat. It is better to give preference to rye bread, avoiding excessive consumption of confectionery sweets, chocolate, sweets. The most strict diet should be in the first month of life, when the baby is only acquainted with the products that come with his mother's milk. But gradually, a nursing woman should expand her diet, carefully taking care not to develop an allergy in infants. How to treat it, of course, the pediatrician will be able to tell, but why stress the immune system of the crumbs once more.
It is worth noting that it is the expansion of the diet that contributes to the fact that the child gets acquainted with new products and gradually adapts to them.But the transfer of the baby to the mixture due to the slightest allergy may be the reason that the body's reaction to problem products in the future may be unpredictable.
Breast Milk Substitutes
Breastfeeding helps the baby to get acquainted with the products that he will soon have to eat on their own. Babies feeding on the mixture are deprived of this. They begin to get acquainted with all the products only with the start of feeding. Their bodies are not as adapted as babies who are breastfed. But this is not the only problem.
Very often there is an allergy to the mixture in infants. This is due to the fact that manufacturers make mixtures based on cow's milk proteins. They become the main cause of the reaction. Not to notice it is almost impossible. The cheeks, and sometimes other parts of the baby’s body, turn red and even become covered with a dense crust. In addition, these children become restless, because the affected places can itch and cause a lot of discomfort. Changing the mixture alone is fraught with worsening of the situationIt is necessary to select it only with the help of a pediatrician, and preferably an allergist.
So, now on sale you can find two types of hypoallergenic food, which can be used even if there is an allergy to protein in infants. One of them is made on the basis of soy and does not contain any animal proteins that cause the occurrence of the problem. The other is made from so-called safe cow's milk. It becomes harmless because it is processed in a special way, splitting proteins into individual amino acids. But they also have their drawbacks. So, no one can guarantee that the crumbs will not develop an allergy to soy. A mixture of safe milk is quite expensive and, as a rule, crumbs do not like the taste.
Also, do not forget that the mixture includes more than 20 different components, which can cause an allergy in infants. How to treat it will be quite difficult to find out. After all, it is very difficult to identify exactly which component is the reaction.
Start of feeding
Even if during feeding with a mixture or breast up to 6 months the baby did not have any problems, you should not relax. The main motto of proper feeding is: "Do no harm."In order not to understand later on how to treat allergy in infants, it is necessary to competently approach the introduction of products.
It is better to start with hypoallergenic gluten-free cereals or vegetables, depending on the weight of the crumbs. As a first meal you can try buckwheat, rice, zucchini, cauliflower. Slightly later, colored vegetables and cereals are introduced. Notice, allergy to zucchini in infants is very rare. Therefore, its pediatricians are advised to enter one of the first. But still, children may even have a reaction to this vegetable. If you notice redness, peeling or rash, it is better not to give it anymore. It is also worth to wait with the lure, if the baby has vomiting, the skin has become dry, or, conversely, sweat began to act. Such a reaction requires immediate treatment to specialists. The same applies to other vegetables, fruits or cereals, which you begin to enter the baby. Such food allergies in infants require a more competent approach to the introduction of complementary foods. It may even have to be postponed for a period set by the allergist.
Other provoking factors
Unfortunately, many mothers will find out what an allergy looks like in babies, even if their nutrition is flawless.After all, food is not the only factor that can cause the reaction of the immune system of the crumbs. In addition, various powders, soaps, cosmetics, diapers and other achievements of civilization can cause the baby to become allergic. What to do in this case is understandable. It is necessary to remove the provoking factor as soon as possible: change the washing powder, change the brand of disposable diapers, put the baby in only cotton underwear. Affected areas can be lubricated with cream with dexpanthenol.
Alone trying to overcome the manifestations of allergy is not worth it. Of course, if the baby was helped by eliminating the annoying factor that the mother was able to identify on her own, then there are no problems. But it is better to talk with a specialist, because normally the baby’s body should not perceive food or hygiene products as alien objects with which it is necessary to fight. Normally, the products familiar to the mother should not develop an allergy in infants.
Treatment in such cases most often consists in taking antihistamines (Cetrin, Diazolin, Suprastin), sorbents that remove harmful substances from the intestines (Phosphalugel, etc.), the use of ointments (Fenistil,) Gistal, "Elidel"), which are designed to remove redness and reduce itching.Also, when food allergies can be prescribed enzyme preparations that contribute to the digestion of food. All means recommended by a specialist should be taken as prescribed (but, as a rule, no more than one or two weeks), without interrupting treatment immediately after a slight improvement in the situation.