History of St. Petersburg: briefly about the city
St. Petersburg ... It is very difficult to tell about the history of the city for children and adults. Moreover, it is difficult to do for small children. But we will try. The main goal of any adult who wants to acquaint children with our unique city is not to drive a certain amount of knowledge about him into a child, but to arouse interest in the study of his riches and history. And also to create conditions for the formation among the growing citizens of love for the place in which they were born and live, and pride for it.
What and how to tell 2nd grade students briefly about the history of St. Petersburg?
What should a little Petersburger know about his city? Material on the history of the city for children should briefly cover the main milestones of its existence: the history of the foundation, information about the main buildings, which are symbols of the stages of the development of the city. It is good if you find myths and legends of St. Petersburg in a simplified and fascinating form, because all sorts of entertaining stories awaken children's motivation to receive new knowledge. It is very desirable not to get involved only in stories about the city.It is important to walk a lot with the child in his most beautiful and significant places: the easiest to remember is that you can "see, touch, taste ...". And, of course, the more you play with the young Petersburgers in thematic games, the better the new impressions and knowledge are assimilated, and remembered for a longer time. But only communication with the space of St. Petersburg should be systematic. In addition, there must be a genuine love for the city and the need to communicate with it and talk about it among the adults themselves.
Briefly about the base
No matter how briefly the history of St. Petersburg for children is presented, it is necessary to begin a conversation from the very foundation of the city.
St. Petersburg was founded on the smallest island of the Neva delta, which was called the Rabbit. So from Finnish sounded his name - Yenisaari. They consider the birthday of our city to be on May 16 (now 27), 1703, when a new type of fortress was laid on it - Petropavlovskaya. The fortress was named St. Peter-Burh, which translates as the city of St. Peter.
This place was not simple, but strategically important, because from the fortress, the two branches of the Neva, Big and Small, were clearly visible at once.And, therefore, it was possible to see the enemy ships in time, if they had decided to storm the fortifications. Yes, and the approach on land from the side of Birch Island was also clearly visible.
Myths and Legends of the Foundation
A legend has been preserved in which it is said that Tsar Peter I personally chose Rabbit Island for construction when he was traveling around the mouth of the Neva by boat with his entourage.
And there is also a legend that Peter I himself had cut two pieces of sod from the ground at the place where the fortress was laid. They were then laid down in the form of a cross into a pit dug by soldiers. They placed a wooden box with the relics of the holy Apostle Andrew the First Called. Under the box they put a tablet where the name of the fortress and the date of its foundation were written.
There is also a myth that during the laying of the fortress an eagle flew in the sky. Then he sank down and sat on the young birch trees tied by the tops, like on a gate. By decree of Peter the bird was caught and tied with a rag to his hand. And then the eagle accompanied the king on his trips, and later was appointed commandant of Kotlin Island, where they later laid down the fortress of Kronstadt.
St. Petersburg began to be based on Berezovy Island, because it was quite close to the place where resettled peasants from central provinces worked, captured Swedish soldiers, hired workers ...They settled in the huts, which were located in small settlements on the southern side of the island. Pushkaris, masters of cannon and nucleus production, and gunmen, masters of guns, also founded their settlements here.
In 1704, almost opposite the Peter and Paul Fortress, the Admiralty was laid, a shipyard where military sailing ships were built. And the workers of this shipyard began to build their homes around the Admiralty Shipyard - Sea Sloboda.
The first center of the new city was Trinity Square on Berezovy Island (now it is the Petrogradskaya side), where the first port with customs and other important facilities, Gostiny Dvor and a tavern appeared. The first printing house was opened here, where the first St. Petersburg newspaper Vedomosti was published. And close by Peter I built their wooden houses. Yes, and Peter himself nearby ordered to cut down for himself a small house, which was called the "Original Palace". And on the site of the first city church, Trinity, they have now installed a memorial chapel.
Speaking briefly about the history of the city of St. Petersburg, it is impossible to ignore his very first residential building.
We know this first residential building of the city as the House of Peter I. In addition to these names, there is a third - “Red Horomts”. Why red? Yes, because at the behest of the king they were painted in the color of red brick. And the house was cut down by soldiers very quickly - in just three days. It was a cold house - there was no good heating in it, just a brazier with coals. And the house was quite small - three rooms (bedroom, study, dining room) and an entrance hall (the royal orderly was located in them). On the roof made wooden images in the form of cannons and cores. Indeed, in the house lived the scorer of the company of the Preobrazhensky regiment. No commander at all, but only the commander of a cannon crew.
The facts show that Peter I did not live in this house - most of the time he was at war. Then his troops fought with the Swedes for our lands and access to the Baltic Sea. And later he lived in another palace, the Winter Palace, built for him on the opposite bank by the first architect of the city, Domenico Trezzini. But the king wanted to preserve the memory of the beginning of the birth of his Paradise. And above all, through the preservation of the first residential building of the city. He ordered to erect a protective case over the House, which at first resembled a canopy.And only when Catherine II received a familiar look.
Briefly about the history: capital changes
Since 1712, serious changes began in the life of a young city on the Neva, as the capital of Russia moved to it. Peter I decides to build a stone European city, which will not be like all other Russian cities. Yes, and burned wood very often and burned out strongly. In general, a double benefit. But where to get the stone? After all, they did not extract it in the Neva land. And Peter I decided that he would introduce a “stone tax”, according to which everyone entering and entering the new city would have to carry or carry a stone, and at the same time forbade the construction of stone houses in all of Russia, except St. Petersburg.
The first stone building was supposed to start in the new center of the city - on Vasilyevsky Island. And the island itself should become similar to the beloved Amsterdam or Venice of the Sun - instead of the streets there should be canals, and instead of carts and carriages - boats. And the port wanted to transfer to the Strelka Island. A plan for building has developed all the same Trezzini.
The first stone and the most expensive and brilliant building was the palace of the Most High Prince Alexander Danilovich Menshikov, the first governor of the new capital.Not far away, and the first museum to build steel - Tsar Peter wanted the people to be cultured and educated by its people.
But with the channels did not work. I had to fall asleep, that already began to dig. And so they appeared here instead of canals and streets - lines. And the port moved to Strelka and settled for a long time - more than a century and a half.
Who only in Petersburg after the death of Peter I, no rules! Yes, not always for good. But his daughter, Elizaveta Petrovna, continuing his father's undertakings, made his Paradise really brilliant.
In place of the small and laconic houses in the manner of the Dutch came mansions and three-four-story mansions, as in France. As in a fairy tale, they were decorated with stucco and gilt. At the ball and at the masquerades, no less magnificent and brilliant gentlemen and ladies enjoyed themselves in them.
The city center still under Peter on Vasilievsky Island did not work out. He moved to the left bank of the Neva, where he is now. Streets and avenues appeared here, and the main - Nevsky Prospect. Here and lights appeared, and the pavement, and sewage system. And Empress Elizabeth ordered to build a palace here. The work of this favorite architect asked - the Italian Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli, and the people - Bartholomew Varfolomeichu.
Palace for the brilliant Elizabeth
Rastrelli Winter Palace for the queen decided to build on the Neva River near the Admiralty. Let us briefly discuss the history of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg.
The palace was built for a long time - as much as eight years, but very thoroughly, so as not worse than in France! And a miracle, what a success! Four facades - yes, all different! And they walk: a step forward, a step back, a step forward, a step back ... They are columns and pilasters echoing, but sculptures with vases on the roof. All the walls are rich in stucco and gilt decorated. Here and the lion's muzzles and angel heads, and a variety of garlands ... Forged lattices, cast iron, exactly like frost patterns.
The main staircase has been preserved even now, even though the fire in the palace was terrible. This ladder is called Ambassadorial or Jordanian. Embassy why? So after all on it ambassadors to Elizabeth Petrovna rose at the solemn reception. And because they called it Jordanian, that in front of the entrance in winter in the ice of Neva, a hole was made in the shape of a cross at Christmas. This hole is called Jordan. The staircase is made of white marble in four spans, with a railing of precious wood. And around - gold and mirrors, rich chandeliers. In a word - shine!
Most of the interiors have not been preserved in the Elizabethan style, and after the fire, it was re-designed by various other architects and under other rulers.
City of Great Catherine
Rules Elizaveta Petrovna about twenty years. For those times - a lot. And she did a lot of good for the city. He grew up with her thoroughly. Many beautiful places appeared here, many cultural and educational institutions were opened. Elizabeth and the Russian professional theater at the court founded.
After Elizabeth, Catherine II was in power even longer. She, too, declared herself the successor of the affairs of Peter I. Monument installed him - the Bronze Horseman.
Thirty years is almost rule. And even more for Russia and its capital did. The city has grown even more prettier. New rich buildings were built in the style of the antique. New churches were built - not only Orthodox. On the culture of the Empress much rude yes about education. Smolny Institute of noble maidens opened. And the first orphanage - Educational home.
But the most memorable and important was the founding of the largest museum now - the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg.
Briefly about the history of the Hermitage in St. Petersburg
The beginning of the collection was laid by 125 paintings by European masters, which were transferred to the Goetzkovsky businessman in Berlin by the Empress’s debt. For them, by decree of Catherine the Great, the building of the Small Hermitage was built by the architect Jean Baptiste Wallen-Delamot.
And then Catherine was fascinated by collecting paintings, objects of decorative and applied arts, objects found during excavations, etc. They gathered more and more. They were no longer located in the Winter Palace, and it was decided to build a separate building for them. The commission was given to Yury Matveevich Felten, who erected another museum building next to the Small Hermitage - the Great or Old Hermitage.
Subsequently, other rulers collected various works of art. For them, the New Hermitage was later erected by architect Leo Klenze.
Kazan Cathedral - a monument to military valor and glory
The XIX century became for Petersburg a time of rapid technical development and evolution of the system of improvement. Eclecticism and modern have replaced the baroque and classicism. But this is only after the 1830s.
And the first third of the century was reflected in its architecture by the glorification of the Russian State, including as a powerful military power. First of all, it found a response in St. Petersburg architecture, in which then the Empire style prevailed. Among the architectural structures of this period, many became monuments to the Russian-Turkish war (Moscow Gates, Trinity Cathedral of the Preobrazhensky Regiment, Trinity Cathedral of the Izmailovsky Regiment, etc.) and the Patriotic War with Napoleon in 1812 (Arch of the General Staff, Alexander Column, etc.) .
One of the great monuments to the victory in the war of 1812 is considered to be the Kazan Cathedral, built by Andrey Ivanovich Voronikhin on Nevsky Prospect. Here is a brief history of the Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg.
It was built originally for the icon of the Kazan Mother of God - the patron saint of St. Petersburg. Later, the famous commander Mikhail Kutuzov, commander-in-chief of the Russian army, was buried within the walls of the cathedral, and the keys and flags of the cities taken were placed. And in front of the temple, the sculptor Orlovsky installed two sculptures - commanders M. I. Kutuzov and Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly.
An interesting fact is connected with the construction of the famous colonnade of the cathedral: it is made of stone with wonderful properties - it is very plastic in processing and is soft, but it gets special strength under the influence of air. This stone was mined near Petersburg in the small town of Pudost, which is why it was called Pudost or Pudozhsky.
And another fact: Voronikhin’s prototype was the Cathedral of Saint Peter in Rome (Vatican), but the second semicircular gallery from the opposite side was never built.
So we briefly told about the history of St. Petersburg, we hope the information was useful to you.