GAZ-51: technical specifications. GAZ-51: tuning
GAZ-51 is a truck of the Soviet period, popular in the 50s of the last century. A load capacity of 2.5 tons allowed the use of the machine in almost all sectors of the national economy of the USSR. The model was a fairly reliable flatbed truck. Over 30 years of continuous production, 3,480 thousand vehicles of various modifications have been rolled off the assembly line.
History of creation
In 1937, a project was launched at the Gorky Molotov Automobile Plant to create a new middle-class truck. The concept of the car was defined quite clearly: for the needs of the national economy, a universal, reliable and unpretentious carrier was required. This car was the GAZ-51, the technical characteristics of which from the very beginning were very good.
In the summer of 1938, they launched the production of basic components and assemblies, in January 39th the first prototypes were assembled, and after another year and a half, the new machine passed the tests.In the summer of 1940, the GAZ-51 was exhibited at the Exhibition of Economic Achievements in Moscow as the best achievement of Soviet engineering.
In the spring of 1941, the technical documentation was transferred to the assembly shop of the plant to start the machine into mass production. But the war began, and the release of a new car had to be suspended. Developments in aggregates were useful for other vehicles, including military ones. The engine and gearbox GAZ-51, the propeller shaft with cross-pieces on needle bearings, the clutch with the release bearing and other components were used in the manufacture of military equipment.
Start of release
After the end of the war at the Gorky Plant, they continued preparations for the mass production of GAZ-51, and by the end of 1945 an installation batch of 20 cars was produced. The new car immediately proved itself as a reliable and inexpensive truck in operation. Gearbox GAZ-51 has been improved, and the transmission of the car worked flawlessly. The production continued, and in 1946, 3,136 cars entered the roads of the country.
The model was very simple. It was the first truly successful product in the USSR that did not require any improvements. Characteristics of the GAZ-51 seemed flawless.The car was fast, its cruising speed was about 75 km / h. The car steadily held the road, while differing in ease of operation. Sufficiently soft suspension combined with effective hydraulic shock absorbers made it possible to reach speeds of over forty kilometers per hour on country roads, which was a tangible advantage in comparison with other vehicles.
The performance of the GAZ-51 was higher than that of the popular "three-ton" ZIS-5, while the Gorky car consumed 30% less fuel. With all the advantages, both speed and economic, the machine was recognized as the most suitable for the needs of agriculture. Since the end of 1946, almost all cars directly off the assembly line were sent to collective and state farms. And in 1947 a group of car makers, together with the chief designer of the Gorky plant A. Lipgart, was awarded the Stalin Prize.
Gosplan USSR monthly submitted applications for the release of GAZ-51 in an amount far exceeding the production capacity. Thus, the question arose about the expansion of the assembly areas.In 1948, the production of popular cars was mastered at the Odessa Automobile Assembly Plant, and in 1950, the conveyor was launched in Irkutsk, where production continued from 1950 to 1952, then the production of trucks was turned off for a number of reasons. In Odessa, cars were produced for 27 years. The last car that came off the assembly line on April 2, 1975, was sent to the factory museum.
The power plant machine is fully consistent with the tasks that were set in front of the truck. The optimal cylinder volume allowed us to develop sufficient power to move in any mode. Engine GAZ-51 had the following characteristics:
- type - gasoline;
- the number of cycles - 4;
- cylinder volume - 3 485 cube / cm;
- power - 70 horsepower at 2750 rpm;
- torque - 200 Nm at 1500 rpm;
- cylinder arrangement - inline;
- number of cylinders - 6;
- the number of valves - 12;
- cylinder diameter - 82 mm;
- compression ratio - 6.2;
- cooling system - circulating fluid, closed loop;
- power system - carburetor.
The motor is the successor to the powerplant GAZ-11, which was once created on the basis of Chrysler's lower-valve engine under a license from 1937.The piston group was constantly improved, the liners were installed from special wear-resistant cast iron, compression piston rings were chrome-plated, new bimetallic (steel-Babbit) liners for the crankshaft main and connecting rod necks were developed. As a result of the application of technical innovations, the engine resource has increased significantly.
In the course of the modernization, an aluminum block head and plug-in seats were used for the valves. The car gradually absorbed all the advanced technologies, its design was gradually improving. In 1954, the cab of the car became all-metal, at the same time the heater was installed. The new cabin has become an incentive for changing the shape of the front end, the lining has acquired a more modern look, the wings with headlights organically fit into the overall style. Behind the grille, special vertical louvers were installed that prevented excessive engine cooling in winter.
In 1949, a modification of the GAZ-51U was developed, which was intended to be sent abroad to countries with a temperate climate. The machine was exported for six years, from 1949 to 1955, in small batches.Then the design office of the Gorky Automobile Plant developed the GAZ-51Y model adapted for use in tropical climates. This modification was produced for almost twenty years, from 1956 to 1975. The trucks were sent to Africa and Asia, where they were used on construction sites or used as a regular vehicle for the transport of goods and livestock.
A model of increased payload - GAZ-51V was also supplied for export. The car body could hold 3.5 tons. Production lasted from 1957 to 1975. The car was equipped with an engine with 78 horsepower, the rear axle GAZ-51 was borrowed from the all-wheel drive all-terrain vehicle GAZ-63. Larger tires were used - 8.25x20.
Another export modification - GAZ-51DU. It was a car for the regions with a temperate climate, made on the basis of a dump chassis.
GAZ-51DYu was exported to GAZ-93AT dumping base to countries with a tropical climate.
Truck tractors were also exported: GAZ-51PU was intended for countries with moderate climatic conditions, GAZ-51PY - for hot regions.
For the thirty-year period of production of a popular truck at its base werecreated special models for various purposes. The list contains experimental and serial modifications of GAZ-51:
- All-wheel drive car two-axle (wheel formula 4x4). Rear axle GAZ-51 was equipped with single wheels. The serial production of the model lasted from 1948 to 1946. The car was delivered to logging and forestry as an auxiliary road vehicle. Boards of a body were increased, the car was completed with arches for installation of an awning.
- GAZ-93 - a dump truck for construction purposes with a carrying capacity of 2.25 tons, the layout on the shortened chassis of the GAZ-51. It was produced in small series by the Odessa assembly plant. The release lasted from 1948 to 1955.
- GAZ-51N - army truck with a body from the model GAZ-63, an additional gas tank of 105 liters and folding longitudinal seats along the sides. Produced commercially from 1948 to 1975.
- GAZ-51B - modification with gas-cylinder fuel system operating on natural liquefied gas. It was produced in small batches from 1949 to 1960 on the basis of GAZ-51A.
- GAZ-51ZH - a model equipped with a bazobalonnoe device operating on liquefied petroleum gas. It was produced in limited quantities from 1954 to 1959.The total number of cars on gas fuel, descended from the conveyor - 12212.
- GAZ-51A - the onboard base car, differed an expanded body with high boards. Used for agricultural harvesting. Produced commercially from 1955 to 1975.
- GAZ-51F is a small-scale modification equipped with an engine of 80 hp for the chamber-flare type. The car was produced in 1955.
- GAZ-51S - specialized modification with an additional fuel tank of 105 liters. The car was intended for long trips. It was mass-produced in the period from 1956 to 1975.
- GAZ-51SE - a highly specialized model, equipped with a backup fuel tank of 105 liters and shielded electrical equipment. The machine was designed to work in areas of electromagnetic waves.
- GAZ-51R - cargo taxi with the ability to transport people. Flip-down seats were mounted along the sides, the tailgate was fitted with a door and a ladder. Serial production continued from 1956 to 1975.
- GAZ-51T - the car was intended for the transport of bulky cargo. The modification was produced in small series from 1956 to 1975.
- GAZ-51P - tractor with a saddle device for towing semi-trailers with a lifting capacity of up to 3 tons. It was produced from 1956 to 1975.
- GAZ-51D - a specialized chassis with a frame shortened by 320 mm was intended for GAZ-93A, GAZ-93B, SAZ-2500 dump trucks. Cars were mass-produced from 1958 to 1975.
- GAZ-93A - construction dump truck. Produced on a shortened chassis GAZ-51A from 1958 to 1975 in Odessa and Saransk.
- Small class bonnet buses: KAVZ-651A, PAZ-651A, PAZ-651, GZA-651 for 19 seats. Released on the chassis of the GAZ-51. Production was established at the Kurgan Bus Plant (KAVZ) in 1958-1973, the Gorky Bus Plant (GZA) in 1949 and the Pavlovsk Bus Plant (PAZ) in 1950-1958.
- Passenger buses of the PAZ-651 brand on the GAZ-51 chassis were manufactured at factories in Kiev, Tartu, Kaunas, Tosno and Borisov. In Sochi in 1955, one hundred open-top convertible sightseeing buses were manufactured.
- GZA-653 is a sanitary vehicle. Produced by the Gorky Bus Plant in the period from 1958 to 1975.
- The GAZ-51 and GAZ-63 chassis produced special-purpose vehicles: tank trucks, furniture vans, isothermal cars, grain carriers, fire engines, utility repair trucks, aerial platforms, and many others.
Some cars of the past, the release of which stopped many years ago, sometimes get a second life. Restoration of cars 50-60-ies engaged in enthusiasts and collectors. They find preserved rarities in landfills or in abandoned garages, transport them to their workshops and there already begins the long and painstaking process of reviving the car.
Simultaneously with the restoration often updated exterior. This creative process is called tuning. As a result of alterations, the car can drastically change its appearance.
GAZ-51, the tuning of which was made possible thanks to the use of the latest technologies and the latest technical means, is one of the cars of the middle of the last century, which has a good potential for reincarnation.
At the first stage, it is necessary to compile a list of all the changes that tuning masters intend to make to the exterior of the car. The accuracy of the drawings is important. GAZ-51, the tuning of which may be complicated by the dimensions of the car, should be carefully measured and two sets of technical documentation made — original dimensions and change parameters.Then you can get to work. For a full-fledged tuning, you will need equipment in the repair shop assortment: gas welding, Bulgarian, a drilling machine, a set of bench tools, painting equipment.
GAZ-51, the technical characteristics of which are considered ideally suited for tuning conditions, can be a good object for creativity. A tuned car can become a participant of the exhibition of rare automotive vehicles, as well as fairs and sales of old vehicles. If the rarity is in good technical condition, he will be able to take part in the rally or even in competitions.