False boletus: photo, signs, looks like
Picking mushrooms is an extremely exciting activity, but at the same time, not easy. A beginner (and sometimes experienced) mushroom picker is waiting in the forest for unexpected difficulties and sometimes dangers, the main one of which may be a meeting with mushrooms that are poisonous. Today we will tell you about boletus boletus. Perhaps someone does not know that this edible mushroom has a twin - this is a false boletus.
Today there are more than 40 varieties of boletus. In our country, the most common types are:
All these varieties live in close proximity to the birch, however many fungi feel great near the poplar or aspen. Most often they take root in places well warmed by the sun, but at the same time the soil should always remain a little wet.
Boletus ordinary has a red-brown cap with a slightly mucous, smooth surface. In the dry and hot weather, it shines. In young mushrooms, it is in the shape of a convex hemisphere.Mature mushrooms are covered with a pillow-shaped cap. It is 15 cm in diameter. Pores under the head of young mushrooms are painted in cream shades, in mature ones they are painted in grayish. The leg of the fungus sometimes reaches 17 cm in height and about four centimeters in diameter, cylindrical in shape, expanding towards the bottom. Leg covered with brownish scales. The flesh is pure white with no peculiar smell.
This species is distinguished by a dark-brown and sometimes black color of the cap and a dense stem, which is covered with small black scales. Black boletus is most commonly found in wet, wetland areas.
This mushroom has a hat of ocher shades, a foot is dirty-white, covered with scales of a darker color, and a dense flesh that turns pink on the cut.
It has whitish cream, sometimes with a bluish or greenish tint, a hemispheric hat, a thin gray leg covered with whitish scales, and a watery flesh.
These species of boletus are classified as edible mushrooms of the second category. They are well kept. In dried form, they become almost black, which does not affect their taste. These mushrooms are usually fried, boiled, or pickled.Edible boletins contain about 35% protein, which are enriched with various amino acids. They contain an enormous amount of vitamin PP and other micro and macronutrients.
What does a false boletin look like?
The mushroom, which looks very much like boletus, is quite often found in forests in various regions of our country. Today, there are many manuals for mushroom pickers in which you can find a description of the gall fungus (also known as boletus mushroom). His photo shows a striking resemblance to an edible mushroom. Therefore, it is quite difficult to recognize. It grows mainly on loamy soils and sandstones, covered with a thick layer of fallen needles.
We have already mentioned that the false boletus has a second name - gall. This is explained by the fact that its pulp is unusually bitter in taste. The false boletus has a gray-toed gray leg, the same color and shape of a cap as that of an edible mushroom, which successfully imitates a true boletus. A small piece of this “double” is enough to spoil the taste of the real brown caps with bitterness. Eating such a treat would be impossible.After cooking, the already very bitter and unpleasant taste becomes more pronounced.
And yet you can reveal a cheater. The method is quite simple, somewhat unpleasant, but very effective. If a plucked mushroom causes you to doubt, touch its tubular surface with the tip of the tongue. Poisoning is not threatened, and the feeling of bitterness will be a reason to throw such a find away.
Immediately we want to warn that doctors do not recommend this method of testing. They argue that after a while the mushroom picker will have a slight dizziness, and direct contact with the skin will allow toxins to get into the internal organs. Therefore, you need to learn to visually identify the double.
False boletus: signs
Almost every edible mushroom has poisonous counterparts. The boletus is no exception. Beginner mushroom pickers are often wondering what signs a false boletus can give.
To start, carefully examine the find: because of the terrible bitterness, even insects and worms do not eat false boletus. Therefore, if the fungus does not have the slightest speck - it should alert you.
False boletus,The photo of which you can see in our article has a hat with a velvety surface, while a real boletus differs in an absolutely smooth surface. Although the place where the fungus grows can alter its appearance, color and texture - they can become dry and smooth, slightly velvety or wet, even in hot and dry weather. Wet caps of mature false mushrooms lose their shape when touched.
This boletus has a thin leg or slightly thickened towards the bottom. His cap is no more than 18 cm in diameter. False mushroom most often massive, has no streaks in the form of tubes. At a more mature age, a tuberiform stem appears in him, then the cap expands and takes the form of a saucer.
Gall fungus often grows in unusual places for boletus: in oak groves or deciduous forests, near rotten stumps and in ditches.
In this boletus on the leg, the spots are clearly visible, resembling a pattern on a birch trunk. If it is absent - discard your find. On the stem of a false boletus one can see streaks resembling thin blood vessels.
False boletus has a red-greenish or bright brown hat. If you find a green color on it, it is strictly forbidden to eat such a mushroom. Edible boletus can not have these colors. Pay attention to the bottom of the cap. In the gall fungus, it is pinkish in color, and in the edible it is pure white.
Among experienced mushroom pickers, there is a perception that because of the incredible bitterness, false boletus is not eaten. Poisoning by this fungus is not proven by scientists. Rather, they can not come to a consensus. Some experts claim the bitterness of the false carrier is not dangerous to humans. Others believe that its pulp contains toxins that can be absorbed into the blood even when it touches the fungus. After that, they gradually penetrate into the internal organs, destroying them.
Therefore, gathering for a quiet hunt, study the edible mushrooms and their counterparts. In order to avoid unpleasant consequences, do not pick the mushrooms that cause you the slightest suspicion.