Fallen volcanoes: what danger they have

Volcanoes - fire-breathing mountains, a place where you canto look into the bowels of the Earth. Among them there are active and extinct ones. If the active volcanoes show activity from time to time, then the eruptions of the extinct have not been preserved in the memory of mankind. And only the structure and rocks composing them, allow us to judge their turbulent past.asleep volcanoes

Intermediate position is occupied by sleeping, or asleep volcanoes. They are characterized by a lack of active activity for many years.

Sleeping volcanoes

The division of volcanoes into sleeping and acting is very conditional. People may simply not know about their activity in the not so distant past.asleep volcanoes continent height

Sleepers are, for example, the famous volcanoesAfrica: Kilimanjaro, Ngorongoro, Rungwe, Menengai and others. There have been no eruptions for a long time, but light trickles of gas rise above some. But knowing that they are in the zone of the Great East African graben system, one can assume that at any moment they can wake up and show themselves in all their might and danger.

Dangerous calmness

Fallen volcanoes can be very dangerous. A proverb about a quiet pool and devils in it is well suited to them. The history of mankind remembers many cases when a volcano, long considered to be asleep or even extinct, woke up and brought many misfortunes to people living in the neighborhood with it.

The most famous example is the famous eruptionVesuvius, destroying, except Pompeii, several more cities and many villages. The life of Pliny the Elder, a well-known ancient military commander and naturalist, was cut short precisely in connection with it.

Interrupted dream of volcanoes

The Ruiz Volcano in the Colombian Andes was consideredwho fell asleep since 1595. But on November 13, 1985, he denied this, bursting with a series of explosions, one stronger than the other. Snow and ice, located in the crater and on the slopes of the volcano, began to melt rapidly, forming powerful mud-stone streams. They poured into the valley of the river La Gunilla and reached the town of Armero, located 40 km from the volcano. A stream of mud and stones hit the city and surrounding villages with a raging mash of 5-6 m thick. About 20 thousand people died, Armero became a huge mass grave. They managed to survive only those residents who, at the beginning of the eruption, climbed the nearest hills.

The release of gas from the mouth of the Nyos volcano caused the death of more than 1,700 people and a large number of cattle. But in fact it was considered long gone extinct. In its crater even formed a lake.

Volcanoes of Kamchatka

The peninsula of Kamchatka is the center of a largethe number of active and sleeping volcanoes. It would be wrong to consider them extinguished, because the boundary of the collision of lithospheric plates is located here, which means that any activity in tectonic movements can awaken the sleepy, threatening forces of nature.

Kamchatka volcanoes

Long considered an extinct volcano Nameless,located south of Klyuchevskaya Sopka. However, in September 1955 he awakened from sleep, an eruption began, the clouds of gas and ash rose to a height of 6-8 km. However, this was only the beginning. The prolonged eruption peaked on March 30, 1956, when a powerful explosion sounded, which carried the top of the volcano, forming a deep crater with a diameter of up to 2 km. The blast destroyed all the trees at a distance of up to 25-30 km in the district. A giant cloud, consisting of hot gases and ash, rose to a height of 40 km! Small particles also fell out over vast distances from the volcano itself. And even at a distance of 15 km from Nameless, the thickness of the ash layer was half a meter.

As in the eruption of the Ruiz volcano, a stream of mud, water and stones, which swept to the Kamchatka River, was formed, which is almost 100 km.

The fallen volcanoes of Kamchatka are very dangerous, because theysimilar to the infamous Vesuvius, Mont-Pele (Martinique), Kathmai (Alaska). They sometimes have explosions, which in a more populated area would be a real disaster.sleeping volcanoes list

An example is the eruption of Shiveluch in1964 year. The explosion power can be judged by the size of the crater. Its depth was 800 m, and the diameter - 3 km. Volcanic bombs weighing up to 3 tons flew to a distance of 12 km!

Such powerful eruptions in the history of Shiveluchhappened more than once. Near the small village of Klyuchi, archaeologists managed to dig a settlement that was strewn with ashes and stones several centuries ago, even before the Russians arrived in Kamchatka.

Threat to mankind

Some scientists believe that they are asleepvolcanoes can cause a global catastrophe that will destroy humanity. At the same time, they talk about long-extinct giants, such as Yellowstone in North America. The super volcano, after its last eruption, left the caldera at 55 km for 72 km, is at the "hot spot" of the planet where the magma is close to the earth's surface.

And there are a lot of such giants, asleep or close to awakening, on Earth.

Fallen volcanoes (list)

Deserted volcanoes

Mainland

Height

Elbrus

Eurasia

5642 m

Vesuvius

Eurasia

1281 m

Ubehebe

North America

752 m

Yellowstone

North America

1610-3462 m (different parts of the caldera)

Katla

about. Iceland

1512 m

Uthuruku

South America

6008 m

Toba

about. Sumatra

2157 m

Taupo

New Zealand

760 m

Teide

Canary Islands

3718 m

Tambora

about.

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