Athletics: types of athletics list
There is no more popular sport than athletics. Types of athletics are natural for man and diverse, including running, jumping, walking, throwing. To be engaged in them, even high-level athletes do not need special expensive equipment. Therefore, the most disadvantaged and poorest countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America can bring up great champions in athletics and raise their prestige in the international arena.
Of all the Olympic sports, track and field athletics is considered the most mediocrelative. This includes 24 disciplines for men and 23 for women. "The Queen of Sports", like any queen, is very conservative - the program of men's competitions has not changed for more than half a century.
Only women have achieved the right to compete in athletics, formerly considered masculine.
In the variety of competitions and disciplines you can easily get confused by an inexperienced fan, but for convenience they are all divided into several groups.These groups, as a rule, have some general criteria according to which they include some kind of sports.
In English-speaking countries, athletics is especially developed. The types of athletics here are divided into two large groups - "track" and "field". As the name implies, the first one includes all running disciplines, as well as walking competitions, and the second - all the rest.
List of types of athletics:
1. 100 m.
2. 200 m.
3. 400 m
4. 800 m
5. 1500 m.
6. 5 000 m
7. 10 000 m
9. 100 m with barriers.
10. 200 m with barriers.
11. 400 m with barriers.
12. 3000 m with obstacles.
13. Relay 4 x 100 m.
14. Relay 4 x 400 m.
1. Long jump.
2. Triple jump.
3. High jumps.
4. Jumping with a pole.
5. Javelin throwing.
6. Discus throw.
7. Hammer throw.
8. Shot put.
1. 20 km
2. 50 km.
Traditionally, athletics sports are divided into five major divisions: running, walking, throwing disciplines, jumping, and all-around. All of them, in turn, have their own varieties.
Basic types of athletics
Acquaintance with the basic types of athletics begins in a person from early childhood and continues in school, where children learn running, long jumps, throwing sports equipment in physical education classes.Later, the child can develop his skills acquired in school in specialized sports sections, where he can practice more complex types. All varieties of athletics, including basic types, will be described in detail below.
To the basic kinds of sports of athletics it is possible to include sports walking by right. There is no more natural and normal state for a person than walking. However, the most routine form of human activity is also a full-fledged sport.
In the course of the competition, runners will have an overwhelming desire to go on the run, in order to get ahead of their rivals. However, a thoroughly written paragraphs of the rules clearly define the essence of walking.
According to the letter of the rules of sports walking is a cyclical movement, consisting in the alternation of steps. The athlete must always be in contact with the ground, the supporting leg must be straightened to separation from the surface. Simply put, it is forbidden to take off the ground, bend your knees - go to a run.
Driven into the framework of strict rules, fast walkers at a distance are not easy, their every move is followed closely by strict referees who ruthlessly punish the guilty for the slightest violation.For the first foul, a warning is issued, for the subsequent - removal. Therefore, of the types included in athletics, walking is considered one of the most technically difficult. Despite the seeming simplicity, there are many nuances, a large number of athletes go the distance for carelessness and carelessness in technique. A lot of stars in race walking gave the athletics of Russia.
The species included in the Olympic program - 20 km for men and women, in addition, the representatives of the stronger sex compete at a very long distance of 50 km.
Faster than wind
Having barely learned to walk, the child soon begins to rush like mad, competing with friends in speed and endurance. Engaged in running and at a professional sports level, playing medals and titles, setting world records. On the question of what kinds of sports are included in athletics, even the most distant person from sports will confidently call running.
The most spectacular and dynamic running disciplines are competitions in the 100 and 200 meters, which belong to the sprint. Here the speed qualities of athletes, the ability to perform explosive, short-term work come to the fore.The strongest sprinters are black sportsmen from the United States and the Caribbean, whose muscular structure, according to experts in sports medicine and physiology, is ideal for such tasks.
The main star of the sprint of the last ten years is certainly considered to be Usain Bolt, a Jamaican athlete who has consistently won all major international tournaments from 2008 to 2017. He became an eight-time Olympic champion, a multiple world champion, set world records, which for many years, athletes in athletics were considered physically impossible for man.
Types of athletics are not limited to short sprint distances. Competitions in the 400-meter race are ranked in the long sprint. This is one of the most difficult running disciplines, in which the athlete must not only develop high speed, but also keep it for a fairly long stretch, that is, have high-speed endurance.
Running hurdles is also included in the list of disciplines of the Olympic program. Men compete in the run for 110 meters, and women at a distance of 100 meters.
One of the most spectacular types of athletics running program are competitions of relay teams. Based on this, the relay races close the program of athletics at most tournaments.
Here the athlete is already working not only for himself, but also for his team, the teamwork of the athletes comes to the fore. The victory in the relay is considered to be particularly honorable also because it gives an idea of the general level of development of running in a particular country. That is, not even the most stellar athlete has a chance to get a medal due to the high level of the other teammates.
In athletics today there are two types of relay disciplines - 4x100 and 4x400 meters. The distance is divided into four stages, each of which is fixed a specific athlete. At each stage in a special corridor, a baton is transmitted from one team member to another. If the wand falls or is passed in violation of the rules - the team is disqualified.
In the wake of the universal popularization of mixed sports are actively being introduced into the competitive program of the relay, where men and women alternate.
Each fan is interested in what kind of athletics are included in the Olympic Games. Among them are running disciplines for medium and long distances. The first group traditionally includes running for 800 and 1500 meters. Here runners compete, who must possess not only speed, but also endurance, be able to distribute their forces over a distance of several laps around the stadium.
In addition, there are factors that are not taken into account at short distances. If sprinters run along their lanes and can ignore competitors, then the stayers, after 200 meters, go out onto the common path and are forced to wage a rather tough fight for a good position during the race. Therefore, medium-distance running is a competition not only in speed and endurance, but also in the ability to conduct tactical combat.
Running at 3,000 and 5,000 meters refers to long-distance running. Here the speed of the athlete is no longer important, his endurance comes to the fore.
If you look at what types of athletics are especially popular in Africa, you can easily notice that these are long-distance running disciplines. Africans are historically adapted by nature in order to overcome the vast expanses of the endless savannahs of their native continent.The largest number of awards in the world's largest tournaments are mined by representatives of Kenya and Ethiopia.
In addition to the disciplines of smooth running, stayers compete in stichelzeze - run with obstacles 3000 meters.
At all the Olympics, without exception, the final view of the entire sports program is the marathon. Winners and prize-winners of the marathon will receive an exceptional honor - to be awarded at the stadium during the closing ceremony of the Olympic Games.
Such privileges are given to representatives of this type of athletics for a reason, since running 42 km is considered the hardest test of the human body for strength, it requires an incredible endurance and strength of mind from an athlete. The marathon competition has long overgrown the field of athletics alone, special commercial marathon tournaments are held, gathering the best runners at extra-long distances.
The list of types of athletics would not be complete without jumping disciplines. Even children compete among themselves who will jump the highest. Do it and professional athletes at prestigious competitions.
These types of athletics are divided into vertical and horizontal. The first include the high jump and pole vault.High jump competitions are held in a specially equipped sector. It includes space for the run, a special bar on the holders and a place for landing.
It's very simple - an athlete runs, pushes off with one foot, takes off, lands. Rivals alternately stormed the height, for each mark they are given three attempts. A jumper has the right to transfer one or two attempts to the following heights. An attempt is not counted if the athlete has set the bar. However, if the judge has already counted the jump raised with a white flag, and the bar still could not resist, then the attempt is considered valid.
One of the most technically challenging disciplines is the pole vault. The athlete must have high sprint qualities, jumping ability and excellent coordination of movement. Just as in the high jump, the athlete is given three attempts at each mark. Height gain is at least 5 cm with each attempt.
The long jump is considered one of the oldest sports, it was included in the competition program of the ancient Olympics, which were brought in Ancient Greece. Since 1896, this technical discipline of athletics has consistently been included in the program of the modern Olympic Games.
A good long jumper must have not only jumping ability, but also excellent sprint skills. Competitions are held in a special sector, which includes a runway, a wooden plank for pushing away and a jump pit.
It seemed that it could be easier - ran up and jumped. However, there are some nuances. The length at which the athlete jumped is measured from the special line on the bar to the edge of the hole in the pit with sand for landing. When an athlete takes the line, the attempt is not counted, so a good jumper must be able to calculate his run up to a millimeter and guess with the rhythm of steps in order to push as close as possible to the permitted line.
The triple jump is considered to be a more difficult technical discipline, because the jump phase is divided into three parts, which requires excellent coordination of movement to make a clean attempt.
The most muscular and strong athletes compete in throwing disciplines of athletics. In this category there are such types of athletics:
- shot put;
- hammer throwing;
- disc throwing;
The discus throwers and nuclear throwers at the modern Olympics began to compete with each other since 1896, later they were joined by spear throwers and hammermen.
In each of these types of athlete is limited to a special area for takeoff and preparation for a throw. The range of the attempt is measured from the special line that limits the zone to the hole from the impact of the projectile.
The zone of the Hammers is limited to a special protective grid enclosing the space on three sides so that the insidious projectile does not fly into the stands and injure any of the spectators. Spear throwers often depend on the vagaries of the weather, the tail wind rather strongly interferes with a clear attempt and irrevocably changes the flight path of their projectile.
The most difficult type of athletics is all-around. Athletes compete in several disciplines of athletics, including running, throwing, jumping. Each of them requires special specific qualities, therefore a good multi-sided fighter is always a model of a comprehensively developed athlete.
Men compete in ten kinds of athletics programs, women - in seven. The exhausting and exhausting competitions of all-rounders always stretch for two days. On the first day, the decathlon competitors compete in the following forms: 100 meters run, long jumps and height, shot put, the last day’s sprint is 400 meters.
The exhausting marathon continues on the second day by throwing a disc and a spear, a pole vault, and a run with barriers. The crown of the competition is running for 1500 meters, which stands out from the rest, requiring mostly short explosive muscle work, and it becomes a real test of endurance. The Heptathlon program for women includes the same species, with the exception of 100 meters running, discus throwing and pole vaulting.
For each type of program, an athlete receives points, calculated by him depending on the result shown. The winner is the holder of the highest amount of credits.
Sports included in the Olympic program are under special attention in each country. Russia also gave the world a lot of stars of the "sport queen". Technical types are especially developed here, which include long jumps, pole vaulting, various kinds of throwing. One of the best athletes of all times and peoples is considered to be Elena Isinbayeva, who has set two dozen world records in sixth jumps. Also the name of Tatiana Lebedeva, a world star in the triple jump, thundered to the whole world.
Running athletics are developed unevenly in Russia. In the middle distance race, excellent athletes regularly appear. Yuri Borzakovskiy, Maria Savinova - these stayers became world champions and winners of the Olympics.
However, in the sprint position of Russian athletes, as, indeed, of all European, is not so strong. The black runners from North America and the Caribbean are dominating here unconditionally. It is also not easy to compete with them in long-distance running, where African athletes have strong positions.
Walking until recently was also the pride of the Russian athletics, but numerous doping scandals have undermined confidence in the purity of the achievements of domestic walkers.