Asymmetric, zygomorphic and actinomorphic flower: a brief description
A flower is a shortened shoot of a plant with modified leaves. This part is intended primarily for reproduction. The shape of the flowers of plants can be very different.
Main types of corollas
All existing decorative cultures can be divided into three large groups:
- with symmetrical colors;
- with asymmetric;
- with asymmetric.
All these varieties are represented by a huge number of plants of various genera and families. The type of flower, by the way, is an important criterion for correct taxonomy.
The first type of colors in biology is calledactinomorphic. All parts of the coronas in such plants are absolutely symmetrical. The actinomorphic flower is characterized primarily by the fact that no less than two planes can be drawn through its axis. Look such plants, of course, very attractive. However, it is believed that for pollination by insects they are not well adapted.
Variety of forms of symmetrical corollas
The correct flower is actinomorphic, in addition to everythingother, may have a different number of petals. Sometimes they are arranged in one row, sometimes in several. Actually, the actinomorphic coronals differ in such features as:
- length of tube;
- form of bending;
- amount of bending.
An actinomorphic flower can be:
- Wheel-shaped.The tube of such coronals is small or practically absent. The bend is deployed in almost the same plane.
- Funnel-shaped.Such flowers have a very large tube. The curvature of the corolla is small.
- Tubular.The corollas of this group are characterized by a cylindrical tube and an erect short bend.
- Campanulate.Such an actinomorphic flower has a cup-shaped spherical tube, gradually turning into a low-marked bend.
- Kolpachkovym.In such flowers petals grow together with the tips.
Plants with corollas of this variety are found in nature quite often. Biologists call these flowers zygomorphic. Through the center of the asymmetric corolla, only one plane can be drawn.
Types of zygomorphic flowers
The corollas of this group have a special shape thatis often a morphological feature of the species (and sometimes even of the family). The petals they have most often fused. In nature there are zygomorphic flowers:
- Two-edged. In such corners, the bend consists of the upper and lower lips.
- Tongue. From the tube of corollas, fused petals leave.
- Spurs. The petals of such colors form a complete outgrowth, which is called a spur.
What is the actinomorphic and zygomorphic flower, wefound out. Asymmetric corners are characterized, first of all, by the fact that no plane of symmetry can be drawn through their center. There are similar plants in the wild not so often. The vast majority of ornamental crops have symmetrical or asymmetrical corolla.
Examples of actinomorphic colors
The fact that symmetrical coronals are poorly pollinatedinsects, according to biologists, is a sign of their low organization. But anyway, in nature, most often there are plants with actinomorphic flowers. To this group belong all well-known meadow, field and forest flowers, including:
- forget-me-nots (wheel-shaped);
- dope, tobacco (funnel-shaped);
- flowers of the Astro family (tubular);
- lilies of the valley (campanulate);
- wild grapes (cap).
In the gardens, the vast majority of ornamental herbaceous and shrubby cultures also have symmetrical corollas. An actinomorphic flower is, for example, peonies, daffodils, sunflowers, lilies, mallow.
Of shrubby cultures, the same group includes rosehips, lilacs, spirea. Actinomorphs are also the flowers of the garden grapes.
Examples of plants with zygomorphic coronals
We found out which plants are the correct flowers,actinomorphic. This group in nature is the most common. Zygomorphic plants in the fields and in forests are more rare. Examples of such crops are:
- two-horned norichnikovye;
- reed dandelion;
- Spongy Linen and watershed.
Decorative qualities of the flowers of this group are usuallynot too high. Therefore, to decorate streets and yards, as well as to compose bouquets, they are grown quite rarely. But sometimes you can see such flowers in gardens and flower beds, of course. For example, a good decoration of the site can be a vyazel (garden mouse peas). This culture is often used in landscape design as ground cover.
Examples of asymmetric colors
Plants of this group, as already mentioned, and innature, and in gardens are rare. Their coronets look pretty attractive and unusual, and therefore can be used in landscape design. Very bright representatives of a group of plants with asymmetric colors are, for example, well-known to all cannes. Also in landscape design, horse chestnut is often used.
Of course, plants of this group can also occur in the wild. Asymmetric flowers, for example, have a medicinal plant valerian.