Alexandre Dumas: biography and creativity
In the thirties of the XVIII century, this author, one of the first playwrights, romantics, became known in France and far beyond its borders. Today, his works are re-read several times, so exciting are the adventures of his heroes. Interest in his books did not disappear even centuries later; over 150 films were made from them. According to statistics, the most widely read French author in the world is Alexandre Dumas, whose biography and photo are presented in this article.
The famous novelist Dumas (1802-1870) was born in the town of Viller-Cotre. His father - General Tom Dumas, mother, a serious and virtuous woman Marie-Louise Labouret - the daughter of an innkeeper.
Alexander's father served in the army of Bonaparte, and on his return to his homeland in 1801, he was in prison. On the occasion of reconciliation, an exchange of prisoners took place and he was released. But the prison did its job - it came out of it half paralyzed, mutilated and with a stomach ulcer. About service in the army could not be considered. At this time, the son Alexander appeared in the family.
The boy's childhood passed in materially cramped conditions. For him, they could not even get a scholarship to study at the lyceum. Alexander was taught to write and read by his mother and sister. But in mathematics, the matter was not advanced further than the multiplication table. But his handwriting was excellent - clear, neat, with numerous curlicues.
Mother tried to teach him music, but Dumas didn't have a hearing. The boy danced beautifully, fenced well and shot. Visiting Abbe Gregoire's College, Dumas learned the basics of grammar and the beginnings of Latin. All day long the future writer disappeared in the forest, because he was very fond of hunting. But one hunt will not live. It's time to find a job. And Alexandre Dumas enters the service of a notary.
Once during a trip to Paris, Dumas meets actor Talma. And having concluded that a career can only be built in Paris, Alexander, without hesitation, moves there. Arranged in the office of the Duke of Orleans. Service was for him only a source of livelihood.
For himself, the future writer concluded that he needed to learn, as his ignorance causes amazement from his friends.He devotes much of his time to literature, communicates with playwrights and famous writers. In 1829, wrote the drama "Heinrich the Third and his court." The play had overwhelming success and had several performances.
The king saw in the drama "Heinrich the Third" some similarities with the reigning monarch and was going to ban the play. But the Duke of Orleans supported her. So, Dumas, who came from the province without education and money, became a famous person. Soon the repertoire of theaters is enriched with such dramas and plays as “Kin, or Genius and Disorder”, “Nel Tower”, “Anthony”.
After the Great Revolution, the Duke of Orleans took over the French throne. Dumas Alexander was among those who stormed the royal palace of the Tuileries. His biography took shape in such a way that from the very first days the writer takes full part in public life and fulfills the assignments of General Lafayette, who led the guard.
In 1832, Dumas, at the request of the relatives of General Lamarck, who was buried on June 5, stood at the head of the column of gunners who accompanied the funeral procession. The police disperse the crowd, which was the beginning of the uprising, which was brutally suppressed.
A false report appeared in the press that Dumas was shot. In fact, he, on the advice of his friends, leaves France and goes to Switzerland, where he prepared for publication an essay "Gaul and France."
Love is wonderful impulses
“The busy people have no time to look at women,” the great writer Alexander Dumas used to say so. The biography for children, which many met at school, tells only about the main milestones of the biography: “was born, married, worked”. In fact, Dumas was not only a stormy writer. The personal life of the immortal author beat the key.
Before opening the veil of the passions of the passionate don Juan, I would like to note that Dumas understood the female soul, and most importantly, he really loved them all and was grateful for their love. He was a kind-hearted man. It is for this that all beloveds appreciated him. Many of them admitted that they had not met a more generous man than he.
About love adventures of the great writer are legends. No one knows how many mistresses were in his life, but biographers are prone to having between 350 and 500. Dumas himself mentions only a few in his memoirs:
- Her first love in Paris is Adele Dahlven, who broke the heart of a fifteen-year rake. After two years of communication, I married another. The only woman who broke up with him herself, in all other cases, the initiator of the separation was Dumas.
- Catherine Labe - a neighbor on the landing, to which he moved to live. But the modest and loyal Catherine has ceased to arrange it. Learning that she was expecting a child, he made conclusions: she simply decided to tie him to her. Dumas leaves and appears at her doorstep when her son is seven years old.
- Alexander Dumas justified his “African passions” by the fact that he gets a lot of mistresses out of philanthropy, only one would simply die a week later. Among the many heart adventures with actresses is the connection with Belle Kroelsamer. It ended with the fact that in 1831 she gave birth to a daughter from him.
In 1832, the case brought him together with actress Ida Ferrier (his real name is Margarita Ferran). As soon as between them began a relationship, Dumas is already falling in love with another actress. Nevertheless, in 1838, Dumas marries precisely Marguerite Ferrand. How a full blonde with crooked teeth managed to accomplish such a feat remains a mystery.
Being married, Dumas did not change his way of life. In 1844, the marriage broke up.In 1851, the next beloved of the tireless lovemaster Anna Bauer gives birth to Dumas son Henri. Since she was a married woman, the son carried the name of her husband.
Alexandre Dumas' last love was the American actress and horsewoman Ada Mencken. He met her in 1866, when she came to conquer Paris. Dumas son persuaded his father not to advertise the relationship with a young American woman who had already been married four times. But the father did not heed the voice of reason.
It is not known how the relationship with a woman would end, but the fate of Ada was tragic. She died of acute peritonitis in 1868. After that, Dumas son decided to unite his parents. Her father did not mind, but Catherine Labe replied that the beloved was forty years late. In October 1868, she died. Dumas will outlast her by two years.
A distinguished novelist, traveler, historian and publicist, Dumas was also an excellent cook. In many of his works, he describes in detail the preparation of certain dishes. The fact that he planned to create a "Culinary Dictionary", the writer spoke during his stay in the Russian Empire. In 1870, he handed over to the press a manuscript containing 800 short stories on the culinary theme.
The “Big Culinary Dictionary” was published in 1873, after the death of the writer.Later, an abbreviated copy of it was issued - “Small Culinary Dictionary”. By the way, Dumas was not a gourmet or glutton. On the contrary, he led a healthy lifestyle, did not drink alcohol, tobacco and coffee. For myself, Alexander Dumas was preparing rarely because he kept to a diet. Only for guests.
Dumas had the reputation of a hospitable and generous host. The estate of Monte Cristo, which belonged to Dumas, from the very first days becomes an open house. It welcomes everyone, feeds anyone and, if necessary, puts them to sleep. Anyone who was constrained by the means could easily settle in the estate.
Monte Cristo Castle
The success of the Count of Monte Cristo, a novel published in 1844, exceeded all expectations. In it, Dumas described his dream of a smart, care-free life, without monetary problems. Having survived this in the pages of the novel through the fate of Dantes, the writer began to put his dream into reality.
He began with the construction of the castle. In July 1847, its grand opening took place, to which more than 600 guests arrived. The castle was great! The beautiful building is surrounded by a park like English. There are sculptures of great people - Shakespeare, Goethe, Homer.Above the entrance is the owner’s motto: “I love those who love me.”
Many of the dreams associated with the castle, Dumas did not have time to realize. For example, he dreamed of creating a literary park and calling each avenue one of his works. After 150 years, his dream came true. You can study his books. Everything is as dream as Dumas Alexander.
The biography of this great writer has united thousands of people who are not indifferent to his work. Their efforts today in the castle created a house-museum of Alexandre Dumas, open to the public.
In the thirties, Alexander had a plan to recreate the history of France with a whole series of books. Dumas expands his knowledge by studying the works of famous historians: O. Thierry, P. Barant, J. Michelet. In his works, he adheres to the logical sequence of events. His books testify to the author’s awareness of French history.
"Isabella of Bavaria" was the first book of this cycle. The historical basis for the creation of the novel was: The Chronicle of the Times of Charles VI, The History of the Dukes of Burgundy, The Chronicle of Froissart. Along with historical characters, fictional names are involved in the novel.Thus, the genre of the historical novel was revived by Alexander Dumas.
The biography and work of this author is connected with an important event for every Frenchman - the Great French Revolution. He will devote a series of books to her. The author understands that in order for the life of kings and ministers to be interesting to the reader, it is necessary to show: they are not alien to the same feelings and experiences as the mere mortals.
He knew that his novels did not represent the historical value, since the facts were presented in the manner required by the art form. The story was what the French wanted to see: colorful, fun, where good and evil are on opposite sides.
Readers of that time consisted of people who committed a great revolution and fought in the armies of the empire. And they liked it when monarchs were presented in heroic pictures.
History of france
The novel “Chevalier d’Armantal” made the author understand that historical novels are an inexhaustible source. The largest Parisian newspapers fought for the right to publish Dumas. And the unsurpassed "Three Musketeers" brought the author to the top of glory.
Dumas was repelled in his work from well-known sources, sometimes fake.As, for example, “Memoirs of D’Artagnan”. Genuine materials - "Memoirs of Madame de Lafayette" - served as the basis for the book "Viscount de Brazhelon".
From 1845 to 1855, Alexander Dumas wrote without respite. Perhaps in the entire history of literature, none of the writers have been so prolific. In the novels of Dumas in front of the reader is the history of France. After "The Three Musketeers" go "Twenty Years Later" and "Viscount de Brazhelon".
Dumas beautifully portrays the character of the crowd - sometimes cruel and bloodthirsty, sometimes slavish and submissive, now rude and cynical, now sentimental. The novels "Queen Margot", "Countess de Monsoreau", "Forty-five" - a living embodiment of the soul of France.
The Great French Revolution Dumas devotes a series of novels: "Joseph Balsam", "The Queen's Necklace", "Ange Pete", "Chevalier of the Red Castle", "Countess Charny". In them, the author reveals the reasons that caused the revolution, describes the fall of the French monarchy.
Dumas admits quite boldly to deviations from historical facts, but he compensates for this by the drama of events, effects and wonderful adventures that make the heart of readers beat hard.
During his life, Dumas father managed to write and publish more than 500 volumes of works of various genres.This is a huge talent of this writer, his amazing and boundless imagination.